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Technical Paper

Vehicle System Impacts of Fuel Cell System Power Response Capability

The impacts of fuel cell system power response capability on optimal hybrid and neat fuel cell vehicle configurations have been explored. Vehicle system optimization was performed with the goal of maximizing fuel economy over a drive cycle. Optimal hybrid vehicle design scenarios were derived for fuel cell systems with 10 to 90% power transient response times of 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 seconds. Optimal neat fuel cell vehicles where generated for responses times of 0, 2, 5, and 7 seconds. DIRECT, a derivative-free optimization algorithm, was used in conjunction with ADVISOR, a vehicle systems analysis tool, to systematically change both powertrain component sizes and the vehicle energy management strategy parameters to provide optimal vehicle system configurations for the range of response capabilities.
Technical Paper

Platform Engineering Applied to Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology will provide substantial reduction in petroleum consumption as demonstrated in previous studies. Platform engineering steps including, reduced mass, improved engine efficiency, relaxed performance, improved aerodynamics and rolling resistance can impact both vehicle efficiency and design. Simulations have been completed to quantify the relative impacts of platform engineering on conventional, hybrid, and PHEV powertrain design, cost, and consumption. The application of platform engineering to PHEVs reduced energy storage system requirements by more than 12%, offering potential for more widespread use of PHEV technology in an energy battery supply-limited market. Results also suggest that platform engineering may be a more cost-effective way to reduce petroleum consumption than increasing the energy storage capacity of a PHEV.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

This paper describes the design and construction of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle based on the conversion of a five passenger production sedan. The vehicle uses a relatively small fuel cell stack to provide average power demands, and a battery pack to provide peak power demands for varied driving conditions. A model of this vehicle was developed using ADVISOR, an Advanced Vehicle Simulator that tracks energy flow and fuel usage within the vehicle drivetrain and energy conversion components. The Virginia Tech Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle was tested on the EPA City and Highway driving cycles to provide data for validation of the model. Vehicle data and model results show good correlation at all levels and show that ADVISOR has the capability to model fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) differ from hybrid vehicles (HEVs) with their ability to use off-board electricity generation to recharge their energy storage systems. In addition to possessing charge-sustaining HEV operation capability, PHEVs use the stored electrical energy during a charge-depleting operating period to displace a significant amount of petroleum consumption. The particular operating strategy employed during the charge-depleting mode will significantly influence the component attributes and the value of the PHEV technology. This paper summarizes three potential energy management strategies, and compares the implications of selecting one strategy over another in the context of the aggressiveness and distance of the duty cycle over which the vehicle will likely operate.
Technical Paper

Degree of Hybridization Modeling of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell PNGV-Class Vehicle

An ADVISOR model of a PNGV-class (80 mpg) vehicle with a fuel cell / battery hybrid electric drivetrain is developed using validated component models. The vehicle mass, electric traction drive, and total net power available from fuel cells plus batteries are held fixed. Results are presented for a range of fuel cell size from zero (pure battery EV) up to a pure fuel cell vehicle (no battery storage). The fuel economy results show that some degree of hybridization is beneficial, and that there is a complex interaction between the drive cycle dynamics, component efficiencies, and the control strategy.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Energy Management Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

Fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs) use an energy management strategy to partition the power supplied by the fuel cell and energy storage system (ESS). This paper presents an adaptive energy management strategy, created in the ADVISOR™ software, for a series FCHV. The strategy uses a local or “real-time” optimization approach, which aims to reduce total energy consumption at each instantaneous time interval by dynamically adjusting the amount of power supplied by the fuel cell and ESS. Compared with a static control strategy, the adaptive strategy improved the simulated FCHV's fuel economy by 1.4%-8.5%, depending on the drive cycle.