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Vehicle Duty Cycles and Their Role in the Design and Evaluation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

Understanding in-use fleet operating behavior is of paramount importance when evaluating the potential of advanced/alternative vehicle technologies. Accurately characterizing real world vehicle operation assists in properly allocating advanced technologies, playing a role in determining initial payback period and return on investment. In addition, this information contributes to the design and deployment of future technologies as the result of increased awareness regarding tractive power requirements associated with typical operating behavior. In this presentation, the concept of vehicle duty cycles and their relation to advanced technologies will be presented and explored. Additionally, current research attempts to characterize school bus operation will be examined, and existing computational analysis and evaluation tools associated with these efforts discussed. Presenter Adam Duran, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads.
Technical Paper

Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Today's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) controls do not necessarily provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. An approach that employs route-based control could improve HEV efficiency at potentially minimal additional cost. This paper evaluates a range of route-based control approaches and identifies look-ahead strategies (using input from “on-the-fly” route predictions) as an area meriting further analysis. A novel implementation approach is developed and discussed, and a comparison with simulation results using an optimized general control setting indicates that fuel savings of approximately 2% to 4% can be obtained with route-based control. Given the increasing prevalence of GPS systems in vehicles, this advance has the potential to provide considerable aggregate fuel savings if applied across the entire national fleet. For instance, a 3% across-the-board reduction in HEV fuel use would save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually in the United States.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study analyzed the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors included vehicle weight and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. Simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles.
Journal Article

Potentials for Platooning in U.S. Highway Freight Transport

Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as a means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption – and related emissions – while also providing additional benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, which are currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that could provide significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles. A statistical analysis was performed based on a large collection of real-world U.S. truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning.
Technical Paper

Orbiter Flash Evaporator: Flight Experience and Improvements

The Flash Evaporator Subsystem (FES) provides active cooling for the Shuttle Orbiter vehicle during the ascent and re-entry phases of the flight and provides supplemental cooling to the radiators while on-orbit. This paper describes the design and operation of the FES and summarizes the operational flight experience to date. As the fleet of orbiters grows older, contamination and corrosion are two issues on which attention has focused. A discussion of these conditions and the subsequent design changes and operational workarounds will be summarized.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024

Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. Operating costs included in the calculation tool include fuel, maintenance, tires, and repairs; ownership costs include insurance, registration, taxes and fees, depreciation, financing, and tax credits.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Passive Diesel Particulate Filters on Heavy-Duty Vehicles

A multi-year technology validation program was completed in 2001 to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different diesel fleets operating in Southern California. The fuels used throughout the validation program were diesel fuels with less than 15-ppm sulfur content. Trucks and buses were retrofitted with two types of passive DPFs. Two rounds of emissions testing were performed to determine if there was any degradation in the emissions reduction. The results demonstrated robust emissions performance for each of the DPF technologies over a one-year period. Detailed descriptions of the overall program and results have been described in previous SAE publications [2, 3, 4, 5]. In 2002, a third round of emission testing was performed by NREL on a small subset of vehicles in the Ralphs Grocery Truck fleet that demonstrated continued robust emissions performance after two years of operation and over 220,000 miles.
Journal Article

Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Big Data Analysis Techniques for U.S. Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycle Characterization, Segmentation, and Development

Under a collaborative interagency agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a series of in-depth analyses to characterize on-road driving behavior including distributions of vehicle speed, idle time, accelerations and decelerations, and other driving metrics of medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicles operating within the United States. As part of this effort, NREL researchers segmented U.S. medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicle driving characteristics into three distinct operating groups or clusters using real-world drive cycle data collected at 1 Hz and stored in NREL’s Fleet DNA database. The Fleet DNA database contains millions of miles of historical drive cycle data captured from medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating across the United States. The data encompass existing DOE activities as well as contributions from valued industry stakeholder participants.
Technical Paper

LNG Truck Demonstration

Among on-road motor vehicles, diesel-fueled heavy-duty trucks emit disproportionately high amounts of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The trucking industry has taken an active interest in the use of engines powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) to reduce NOx and PM emissions. However, major barriers exist to widespread use of LNG in trucking applications, including reduced performance and higher initial capital costs compared to diesel-fueled vehicles, as well as a limited fueling infrastructure. To help address these barriers, the California Energy Commission (Commission) joined with the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) in cost sharing a program led by the West Coast Transportation Technology Group of Arthur D. Little, Inc. (ADLittle).
Technical Paper

King County Metro - Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Testing

Chassis dynamometer testing of two 60 foot articulated transit busses, one conventional and one hybrid, was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's, ReFUEL facility. Both test vehicles were 2004 New Flyer busses powered by Caterpillar C9 8.8L engines, with the hybrid vehicle incorporating a GM-Allison advanced hybrid electric drivetrain. Both vehicles also incorporated an oxidizing diesel particulate filter. The fuel economy and emissions benefits of the hybrid vehicle were evaluated over four driving cycles; Central Business District (CBD), Orange County (OCTA), Manhattan (MAN) and a custom test cycle developed from in-use data of the King County Metro (KCM) fleet operation. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated the highest improvement in fuel economy (mpg basis) over the low speed, heavy stop-and-go driving conditions of the Manhattan test cycle (74.6%) followed by the OCTA (50.6%), CBD (48.3%) and KCM (30.3%).
Journal Article

In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks

This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and equivalent conventional diesel vehicles. In-use field data were collected from daily fleet operations carried out at a FedEx facility in California on six HEV and six conventional 2010 Freightliner M2-106 straight box trucks. Field data collection primarily focused on route assessment and vehicle fuel consumption over a six-month period. Chassis dynamometer testing was also carried out on one conventional vehicle and one HEV to determine differences in fuel consumption and emissions. Route data from the field study was analyzed to determine the selection of dynamometer test cycles. From this analysis, the New York Composite (NYComp), Hybrid Truck Users Forum Class 6 (HTUF 6), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) drive cycles were chosen.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Analysis of Taxi Fleet Electrification using 4.9 Million Miles of Real-World Driving Data

Ride hailing activity is rapidly increasing, largely due to the growth of transportation network companies such as Uber and Lyft. However, traditional taxi companies continue to represent an important mobility option for travelers. Columbus Yellow Cab, a taxi company in Columbus, Ohio, offers traditional line-of-sight hailing as well as digital hailing through a mobile app. Data from Columbus Yellow Cab was provided to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to analyze the potential for taxi electrification. Columbus Yellow Cab data contained information describing both global positioning system trajectories and taxi meter information. The data spanned a period of 13 months, containing approximately 70 million global system positioning system points, 840 thousand trips, and 170 unique vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no road grade requirements. Additionally, the existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations.
Journal Article

Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

The objective of this research project was to compare the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from transit buses on as many as five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles to establish if there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Prior studies have shown that B20 can cause a small but significant increase in NOx emissions for some engines and duty cycles. Six buses spanning engine build years 1998 to 2011 were tested on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants research laboratory's heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic [California Air Resources Board (CARB)] diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: A Fleet Start-Up Experience

Previous studies have shown that regenerating particulate filters are very effective at reducing particulate matter emissions from diesel engines. Some particulate filters are passive devices that can be installed in place of the muffler on both new and older model diesel engines. These passive devices could potentially be used to retrofit large numbers of trucks and buses already in service, to substantially reduce particulate matter emissions. Catalyst-type particulate filters must be used with diesel fuels having low sulfur content to avoid poisoning the catalyst. A project has been launched to evaluate a truck fleet retrofitted with two types of passive particulate filter systems and operating on diesel fuel having ultra-low sulfur content. The objective of this project is to evaluate new particulate filter and fuel technology in service, using a fleet of twenty Class 8 grocery store trucks. This paper summarizes the truck fleet start-up experience.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services

Today’s electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fleet Buyer's Guide

Fleet managers need a tool to assist them in assessing their need to comply with EPAct and to provide them with the ability to obtain information that will allow them to make alternative fuel vehicle purchasing decisions. This paper will describe the Web-based tool that will inform a fleet manager, based on their geographic location, the type of fleet they own or operate, and the number and types of vehicles in their fleet, whether or not they need to meet the requirements of EPAct, and, if so, the percentage of new vehicle purchases needed to comply with the law. The tool provides detailed specifications on available OEM alternative fuel vehicles, including the purchase cost of the vehicles, fuel and fuel system characteristics, and incentives and rebates surrounding the purchase of each vehicle. The full set of federal, state, and local incentives is made available through the tool, as well as detailed access to refueling site and dealership locations.