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Technical Paper

Vehicle System Impacts of Fuel Cell System Power Response Capability

2002-06-03
2002-01-1959
The impacts of fuel cell system power response capability on optimal hybrid and neat fuel cell vehicle configurations have been explored. Vehicle system optimization was performed with the goal of maximizing fuel economy over a drive cycle. Optimal hybrid vehicle design scenarios were derived for fuel cell systems with 10 to 90% power transient response times of 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 seconds. Optimal neat fuel cell vehicles where generated for responses times of 0, 2, 5, and 7 seconds. DIRECT, a derivative-free optimization algorithm, was used in conjunction with ADVISOR, a vehicle systems analysis tool, to systematically change both powertrain component sizes and the vehicle energy management strategy parameters to provide optimal vehicle system configurations for the range of response capabilities.
Technical Paper

Thermal Evaluation of Toyota Prius Battery Pack

2002-06-03
2002-01-1962
As part of a U.S. Department of Energy supported study, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has benchmarked a Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle from three aspects: system analysis, auxiliary loads, and battery pack thermal performance. This paper focuses on the testing of the battery back out of the vehicle. More recent in-vehicle dynamometer tests have confirmed these out-of-vehicle tests. Our purpose was to understand how the batteries were packaged and performed from a thermal perspective. The Prius NiMH battery pack was tested at various temperatures (0°C, 25°C, and 40°C) and under driving cycles (HWFET, FTP, and US06). The airflow through the pack was also analyzed. Overall, we found that the U.S. Prius battery pack thermal management system incorporates interesting features and performs well under tested conditions.
Technical Paper

The DOE/NREL Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program - An Overview

2001-05-14
2001-01-2068
This paper summarizes the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NG-NGV) Program that is led by the U.S. Department Of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of this program is to develop and implement one Class 3-6 compressed natural gas (CNG) prototype vehicle and one Class 7-8 liquefied natural gas (LNG) prototype vehicle in the 2004 to 2007 timeframe. OHVT intends for these vehicles to have 0.5 g/bhp-hr or lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 2004 and 0.2 g/bhp-hr or lower NOx by 2007. These vehicles will also have particulate matter (PM) emissions of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or lower by 2004. In addition to ambitious emissions goals, these vehicles will target life-cycle economics that are compatible with their conventionally fueled counterparts.
Technical Paper

The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

2001-05-14
2001-01-2069
This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects.
Technical Paper

The DOE/NREL Environmental Science & Health Effects Program - An Overview

1999-04-27
1999-01-2249
This paper summarizes current work in the Environmental Science & Health Effects (ES&HE) Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. The goal of the ES&HE Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based and alternative transportation fuels. Each project in the program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Studies in the ES&HE Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements, emission inventory development/improvement; and ambient impacts, including health effects.
Technical Paper

Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-effective Vehicle Electrification

2010-04-12
2010-01-0824
Electrifying transportation can reduce or eliminate dependence on foreign fuels, emission of green house gases, and emission of pollutants. One challenge is finding a pathway for vehicles that gains wide market acceptance to achieve a meaningful benefit. This paper evaluates several approaches aimed at making plug-in electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) cost-effective including opportunity charging, replacing the battery over the vehicle life, improving battery life, reducing battery cost, and providing electric power directly to the vehicle during a portion of its travel. Many combinations of PHEV electric range and battery power are included. For each case, the model accounts for battery cycle life and the national distribution of driving distances to size the battery optimally. Using the current estimates of battery life and cost, only the dynamically plugged-in pathway was cost-effective to the consumer.
Technical Paper

Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-1315
Today's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) controls do not necessarily provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. An approach that employs route-based control could improve HEV efficiency at potentially minimal additional cost. This paper evaluates a range of route-based control approaches and identifies look-ahead strategies (using input from “on-the-fly” route predictions) as an area meriting further analysis. A novel implementation approach is developed and discussed, and a comparison with simulation results using an optimized general control setting indicates that fuel savings of approximately 2% to 4% can be obtained with route-based control. Given the increasing prevalence of GPS systems in vehicles, this advance has the potential to provide considerable aggregate fuel savings if applied across the entire national fleet. For instance, a 3% across-the-board reduction in HEV fuel use would save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually in the United States.
Technical Paper

Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1969
Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social and environmental benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions.
Technical Paper

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions

1999-04-27
1999-01-2250
To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

2000-04-02
2000-01-1566
This paper describes the design and construction of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle based on the conversion of a five passenger production sedan. The vehicle uses a relatively small fuel cell stack to provide average power demands, and a battery pack to provide peak power demands for varied driving conditions. A model of this vehicle was developed using ADVISOR, an Advanced Vehicle Simulator that tracks energy flow and fuel usage within the vehicle drivetrain and energy conversion components. The Virginia Tech Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle was tested on the EPA City and Highway driving cycles to provide data for validation of the model. Vehicle data and model results show good correlation at all levels and show that ADVISOR has the capability to model fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

2015-09-29
2015-01-2812
This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024

2011-04-12
2011-01-1345
Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. Operating costs included in the calculation tool include fuel, maintenance, tires, and repairs; ownership costs include insurance, registration, taxes and fees, depreciation, financing, and tax credits.
Technical Paper

Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

2012-09-24
2012-01-2049
This research project compares the in-use and laboratory-derived fuel economy of a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with “engine off at idle” capability to a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles in this study included eleven model year 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids that were placed in service at a United Parcel Service (UPS) facility in Minneapolis, Minn., during the first half of 2010. These hybrid vehicles were evaluated for 18 months against eleven model year 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels that were placed in service at the same facility a couple months after the hybrids. Both vehicle study groups use the same model year 2009 Cummins ISB 200 HP engine. The vehicles of interest were chosen by comparing the average daily mileage of the hybrid group to that of a similar size and usage diesel group.
Book

Lithium Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles

2016-05-16
This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: • Long calendar life (greater than 10 years) • Sufficient cycle life • Reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures • Safe performance under extreme conditions • End-of-life recycling To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.
Technical Paper

Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

2013-04-08
2013-01-0381
In 2011, the United States imported almost half of its petroleum. Lightweighting vehicles reduces that dependency directly by decreasing the engine, braking and rolling resistance losses, and indirectly by enabling a smaller, more efficiently operating engine to provide the same performance. The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) tool was used to quantify these impacts. FASTSim is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It steps through a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains.
Technical Paper

King County Metro - Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Testing

2006-10-31
2006-01-3570
Chassis dynamometer testing of two 60 foot articulated transit busses, one conventional and one hybrid, was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's, ReFUEL facility. Both test vehicles were 2004 New Flyer busses powered by Caterpillar C9 8.8L engines, with the hybrid vehicle incorporating a GM-Allison advanced hybrid electric drivetrain. Both vehicles also incorporated an oxidizing diesel particulate filter. The fuel economy and emissions benefits of the hybrid vehicle were evaluated over four driving cycles; Central Business District (CBD), Orange County (OCTA), Manhattan (MAN) and a custom test cycle developed from in-use data of the King County Metro (KCM) fleet operation. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated the highest improvement in fuel economy (mpg basis) over the low speed, heavy stop-and-go driving conditions of the Manhattan test cycle (74.6%) followed by the OCTA (50.6%), CBD (48.3%) and KCM (30.3%).
Technical Paper

Integrated Numerical Modeling Process for Evaluating Automobile Climate Control Systems

2002-06-03
2002-01-1956
The air-conditioning (A/C) system compressor load can significantly impact the fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of conventional and hybrid electric automobiles. With the increasing emphasis on fuel economy, it is clear that the A/C compressor load needs to be reduced. In order to accomplish this goal, more efficient climate control delivery systems and reduced peak soak temperatures will be necessary to reduce the impact of vehicle A/C systems on fuel economy and tailpipe emissions. Good analytical techniques are important in identifying promising concepts. The goal at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is to assess thermal comfort, fuel economy, and emissions by using an integrated modeling approach composed of CAD, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), thermal comfort, and vehicle simulation tools. This paper presents NREL's vehicle integrated modeling process.
Journal Article

In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks

2013-09-24
2013-01-2468
This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and equivalent conventional diesel vehicles. In-use field data were collected from daily fleet operations carried out at a FedEx facility in California on six HEV and six conventional 2010 Freightliner M2-106 straight box trucks. Field data collection primarily focused on route assessment and vehicle fuel consumption over a six-month period. Chassis dynamometer testing was also carried out on one conventional vehicle and one HEV to determine differences in fuel consumption and emissions. Route data from the field study was analyzed to determine the selection of dynamometer test cycles. From this analysis, the New York Composite (NYComp), Hybrid Truck Users Forum Class 6 (HTUF 6), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) drive cycles were chosen.
Journal Article

Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

2014-09-30
2014-01-2375
This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P10HH hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations.
Technical Paper

Heavy Vehicle Auxiliary Load Electrification for the Essential Power System Program: Benefits, Tradeoffs, and Remaining Challenges

2002-11-18
2002-01-3135
Intelligent management of vehicle auxiliary power can reduce fuel consumed by Class 8 tractor-trailers. Through the U.S. Department of Energy's Essential Power System (EPS) Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is investigating electrification of major mechanically driven auxiliary loads in heavy vehicles. This paper describes the benefits and tradeoffs of a managed EPS and quantifies the potential energy savings of component electrification. Simulations predict that maximum fuel economy increases of 9%-15% (urban drive cycle) and 5%-8% (constant 65 mph) are possible. Future EPS work will require a systems approach with a better understanding of duty cycles and auxiliary needs.
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