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Technical Paper

Yaw/Roll Stability Modeling and Control of HeavyTractor-SemiTrailer

This paper sets up a simplified dynamic model for simulating the yaw/roll stability of heavy tractor-semitrailer using Matlab/Simulink. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on partial-state feedback controller is used to optimize the roll stability of the vehicle. The control objective for optimizing roll stability is to be reducing the lateral load transfer rate while keeping the suspension angle less than the maximum allowable angle. The simulation result shows that the LQR controller is effective in the active roll stability control of the heavy tractor-semitrailer.
Technical Paper

Virtual Simulation Research on Vehicle Ride Comfort

In this paper, a computer model of a multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) is built to study vehicle ride comfort by multi-body system dynamic theory. Virtual test rigs are developed to perform natural body frequency tests and random road input tests on the complete vehicle multi-body dynamic model. By comparing simulation results with field test results, the accuracy of the model is validated and the feasibility of virtual test rigs is established.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Occupant Posture Classification System using Seat Pressure Sensor for Intelligent Airbag

In the intelligent airbag system, the detection accuracy of occupant position is the precondition and plays a vital role to control airbag detonation time and inflated strength during the crash. Through accurately analyzing the seat surface pressure distributions of different occupant sitting position and types, an occupant position recognition approach which purely uses occupant pressure distribution information measured by seat pressure sensors is presented with the method of Support Vector Machine. In the end, the distribution samples with different occupant sitting position and types are used to train and test the recognition approach, and the good validity and accuracy are shown in the experiments.
Journal Article

Vehicle Longitudinal Control Algorithm Based on Iterative Learning Control

Vehicle Longitudinal Control (VLC) algorithm is the basis function of automotive Cruise Control system. The main task of VLC is to achieve a longitudinal acceleration tracking controller, performance requirements of which include fast response and high tracking accuracy. At present, many control methods are used to implement vehicle longitudinal control. However, the existing methods are need to be improved because these methods need a high accurate vehicle dynamic model or a number of experiments to calibrate the parameters of controller, which are time consuming and costly. To overcome the difficulties of controller parameters calibration and accurate vehicle dynamic modeling, a vehicle longitudinal control algorithm based on iterative learning control (ILC) is proposed in this paper. The algorithm works based on the information of input and output of the system, so the method does not require a vehicle dynamics model.
Journal Article

Vehicle Interior Sound Quality Analysis by Using Grey Relational Analysis

In this paper, the relationship was investigated between objective psychoacoustic parameters, A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL) and the results of the subjective evaluation by using grey relational analysis (GRA). The sounds were recorded with eight different passenger cars at four different running conditions. The sound quality indices were calculated, including loudness, sharpness, roughness, fluctuation, and A-weighted SPL. Subjective evaluation was performed by thirty subjects using rating scale method. GRA was compared with traditional correlation analysis, and the comparison shows that some hidden information which could not be found in the traditional correlation analysis was revealed. In order to know the further relationship between fluctuation and subjective evaluation, another subjective evaluation was performed by the same 30 subjects. The result demonstrates that the relationship revealed from GRA is correct.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Flow Control and Wind Noise Reduction of Side-View Mirror

It aims to study the unsteady flow characteristic of the side-view mirror wake field, and reduce the wind noise by means of unsteady flow control. In this paper, the PIV test in a wind tunnel is used to capture the unsteady flow in the wake field of the side-view mirror, which is used to verify the accuracy of the steady simulation method with RANS after being averaged. Then LES turbulence model is used to obtain the wind noise, and the unsteady flow characteristic like vortex shedding of the side-view mirror is studied. The results show that, in the wake of the side-view mirror, there is a vortex pair similar to Karman Vortex Street. In both horizontal and vertical sections, these two vortexes are respectively separated from the upper and lower edges of the side-view mirror. Accompanied by a significantly uncertain periodic shedding, they continue to extend back until dissipating.
Technical Paper

Travelling Resistance Estimation and Sandy Road Identification for SUVs

The mechanical properties of sandy road are quite different from those of hard surface road. For vehicle control systems such as EMS (engine management system), TCU (transmission control unit) and ABS (antilock brake system), the strategies and parameters set for solid surface road are not optimal for driving on sandy road. It is an effective way to improve the mobility of all-terrain vehicles by identifying sandy road online and shifting the control strategies and parameters of control systems to sandy sets. In this paper, a sandy road identification algorithm for SUVs is proposed. Firstly, the vehicle signals, such as engine torque and speed, gear position, wheel and vehicle speed, are acquired from EMS, TCU and ESP (electronic stability program) through CAN (controller area network) bus respectively. Based on the information and longitudinal force equilibrium equation, the travelling resistance of vehicle is estimated.
Technical Paper

Traffic Modeling Considering Motion Uncertainties

Simulation has been considered as one of the key enablers on the development and testing for autonomous driving systems as in-vehicle and field testing can be very time-consuming, costly and often impossible due to safety concerns. Accurately modeling traffic, therefore, is critically important for autonomous driving simulation on threat assessment, trajectory planning, etc. Traditionally when modeling traffic, the motion of traffic vehicles is often considered to be deterministic and modeled based on its governing physics. However, the sensed or perceived motion of traffic vehicles can be full of errors or inaccuracy due to the inaccurate and/or incomplete sensing information. In addition, it is naturally true that any future trajectories are unknown. This paper proposes a novel modeling method on traffic considering its motion uncertainties, based on Gaussian process (GP).
Technical Paper

Traction Control Logic Based on Extended Kalman Filter for Omni-directional Electric Vehicle

Omni-directional electric vehicle built by our research group is an advanced electric vehicle whose four wheels can drive, steer and brake independently. The vehicle chassis system is composed of four in-wheel motors, four independent steer motors and electromagnetic brake system, and its control system is divided into logical control layer and underlying execution layer. The information exchange between these two layers is implemented by CAN bus. In this paper, the traction control logic for Omni-directional electric vehicle is developed. The study mainly involves two aspects: the vehicle states estimation and the traction control logic design. The vehicle states, including vehicle longitudinal velocity, lateral speed, side slip angle and yaw rate, etc, are estimated based on Extended Kalman Estimation and multiple degrees of freedom vehicle model.
Technical Paper

The Research on Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy of Synergic Electric System of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Supercapacitor has the merits of low resistance and long lifecycle ability. When combined with battery, they can alleviate the burthen of battery, increase the battery's working efficiency and prolong its lifecycle. This paper introduces a control architecture based on balancing of SOC and algorithm based on fuzzy logic, Aiming at the two different cycles that have sufficient and insufficient energy that can be recovered from braking unlikely, this paper puts forward the methods of on-line adjusting fuzzy control parameters. Consequently, simulation was performed,and the results validate the effective adapting capacity of the control logic under different driving cycles.
Technical Paper

The Integrated Control of SBW and 4WS

Steer-by-wire System is a new conception for steering system, which eliminates those mechanical linkages between hand steering wheel and front wheels, and communicates among the driver and wheels by signals and controllers. All these facilities improve the safety and conformability of the vehicle system and get rid of the mechanical constricts. This paper proposed three vehicle stability control strategies, including front wheel control, yaw rate feedback control and yaw rate& acceleration feedback control. We compared these three control methods by simulation and simulator tests. We also studied the integrated control algorithm of Steer-by-Wire System and 4WS, and compared with 2WS for SBW and the classical 4WS.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Multi-Universal Coupling Phase on Torsional Vibration of Drive Shaft and Vibration of Vehicle

Torsional vibration of drive shaft has great influence on the vibration of vehicle. Reasonable phase arrangement of multi-universal coupling can attenuate vibration. In this paper, theoretical model of drive shaft with planar multi-cross universal coupling was established; the optimization scheme of the phase arrangement of multi-cross universal coupling was presented. The results of test validation and simulation show that the optimization scheme is effective and reasonable. The results of test validation and simulation show that the optimization scheme was effective and reasonable and the optimized scheme could solve the abnormal vibration on floor. Arranging phases of universal joints reasonably is very significative for attenuate the torsional vibration of drive shaft and the floor vibration.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Small Restricted Turbocharged Racecar Engine

This paper summarized the development methodology and technical experiences on Formula Student racecar engines acquired by Jilin University from 2011 to 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and were modified to turbocharged engines which met the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption. During the development process, multiple research projects have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These research projects have covered multiple areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the tuning and control of the boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system for the turbocharger, etc.
Technical Paper

The Bus Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System Design of Hybrid Vehicle Based on Embedded System

Embedded bus monitoring and fault diagnosis system, which was used on the hybrid vehicle was designed in this paper. And this system took the 32-bit embedded one as a hardware platform, customized a WinCE6.0 operation system and used EVC as the tool to design the embedded application. The functions of CAN communication, protocol defamations etc were realized. Good human-computer interaction is developed and the system has already been applied on the bus.
Technical Paper

The Algorithmic Research of Multi-operating Mode Energy Management System

The traditional energy management algorithm is mainly based on a single driving cycle, it is obvious that many factors might be often neglected by designer, such as different driving cycles would suit for different control strategies. But they tend to make decisions on the balance of torque distribution and battery power that based on a single driving cycle. Therefore, it is very difficult to achieve the optimal control in each case. In this paper we introduce a new design concept of Multi-operating mode energy management, a mathematical model of the energy management applied to a hybrid vehicle system is presented. Results of simulations using the model with the Multi-operating mode energy management were compared with results of simulations using a model with the single mode energy management, allowing the energy efficiency evaluation of the proposed energy management system.
Journal Article

System Design and Parameter Matching for the New Generation of Hybrid Electric City Bus

In this paper, based on the research of the first generation of a hybrid electric city bus, principle researches have been offered on the parameters matching of the power-train and main components for the new generation of hybrid electric city bus. The vehicle system was designed integrated, and then simulation platform was developed and established. The dynamic and economy performance can be predicted based on the above work, results show that the designed hybrid electric city bus can meet the performance demands and validate rationality of the parameters matching.
Technical Paper

Support Vector Machine Theory Based Shift Quality Assessment for Automated Mechanical Transmission (AMT)

In China there is a strong trend in the application of vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions in considering the complexity of traffic and the convenience of automatic transmissions. As a type of automatic transmission, automated mechanical transmission (AMT) shows great potential to be developed as a main transmission because of its simple structures, easy upgrade from manual transmission (MT) and low price. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a new statistic method which could make a good prediction with limited training instances. Compared with Artificial Neutral Network (ANN), SVM can provide better genetic ability. In order to verify the ability of the new method, the model trained by one set of AMT car data was applied on some other AMT vehicles, and the predicted results were compared with subjective rating results by expert drivers and analyzed to identify the potential of this new assessment system.
Technical Paper

Study on the Straight-line Running Stability of the Four-wheel Independent Driving Electric Vehicles

The motor errors of the four-wheel independent driving electric vehicles was studied, and classified as steady errors and dynamic errors. In the paper, the forward compensation control and the PID control strategy were respectively applied to compensate for the errors. The electric vehicles straight-line running stability caused by the motor errors was discussed, the PID control method based on BP neural net work was presented to co-ordinate torque of the wheels. The result of the simulation on the 7 degrees of freedom vehicle model showed that control method improved the straight-line running ability of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Study on the Influence of Different Factors on Heavy Truck Ride Comfort

The ride comfort of heavy trucks is related to many factors, which include vehicle operating scenarios and vehicle structure parameters. An investigation of the influence of different factors on the ride comfort of heavy trucks was conducted. Based on the elastic theory of a uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam with both ends free, a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) half rigid-elastic vibration model of the vertical dynamic response was developed. The rigid-elastic model is more suitable to describe the actual movement of heavy trucks. The DOFs include vertical displacements of the body and each of two axles, the pitch displacement of the body, and the first and second order bending displacements of the body. The root mean square (RMS) values of body accelerations, dynamic deflections and relative dynamic loads form the evaluation index. Based on the rigid-elastic model, the influence of different factors on the ride comfort of heavy trucks is analyzed in the frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Study on the Gear Meshing and Order Tracking of a Transfer Case

Gear transmission is widely used in mechanical transmission system and acts an important role in automotive industry. Manufacturing errors, assembly looseness, gear wear issues may result in gear backlash, noise and fatigue damage seriously affecting efficiency and service life of gear transmission. For gear transmission assembled, it is important to monitor the conditions of gear meshing and prevent the occurrence of dangerous situations. How to define the issues of gear tooth wear, misaligned bearing, gear eccentricity, backlash, and how to find faulty planetary gear sets and specific issues existing in gear transmission are meaningful and significant to ensure the quality of product. This paper starts from the analysis on gearing mechanism. Based on the behaviors represented by the issues, gear tooth wear, misaligned bearing, gear eccentricity and backlash are demonstrated and explained in detail.