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Technical Paper

Real World Study of Diesel Particulate Filter Ash Accumulation in Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

In April 2003, a small field study was initiated to evaluate the effect of lube oil formulations on ash accumulation in heavy-duty diesel DPFs. Nine (9) Fuel Delivery Trucks were retrofitted with passive diesel particulate filters and fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel which contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. Each vehicle operated in the field for 18 months or approximately 160,000 miles (241,401 km) using one of three lube oil formulations. Ash accumulation was determined for each vehicle and compared between the three differing lube oil formulations. Ash analyses, used lube oil analysis and filter substrate evaluations were performed to provide a complete picture of DPF operations. The evaluation also examined some of the key parameters that allows for the successful implementation of the passive DPF in this heavy-duty application.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Precious Metal Loadings in Automotive Catalysts Using Response Surface Methodology

The effect of changing catalyst precious metal ratios and loadings on close coupled catalytic converter efficiencies has been studied. The three precious metals were platinum, palladium and rhodium. The specific matrix used for the development of response surface models is a central composite design and provides the capability of visually optimising the precious metal loadings. Catalysts were evaluated using perturbed scans. lightoff curves from the dynamometer aged, and vehicle emission tests. These scans show percent conversion efficiencies of the three legislated gases; HC, CO and NOx, over a range of Air Fuel Ratios (λ). Whilst lean and rich lightoff curves provide indications of conversion efficiencies at varying temperatures. Prior to testing the catalysts were aged, using an accelerated dynamometer ageing process, to 80K simulated kilometres. The catalysts were then fitted to a vehicle and chassis roll emission tests conducted.
Journal Article

New Methodology for Transient Engine Rig Experiments for Efficient Parameter Tuning

When performing catalyst modeling and parameter tuning it is desirable that the experimental data contain both transient and stationary points and can be generated over a short period of time. Here a method of creating such concentration transients for a full scale engine rig system is presented. The paper describes a valuable approach for changing the composition of engine exhaust gas going to a DOC (or potentially any other device) by conditioning the exhaust gas with an additional upstream DOC and/or SCR. By controlling the urea injection and the DOC bypass a wide range of exhaust compositions, not possible by only controlling the engine, could be achieved. This will improve the possibilities for parameter estimation for the modeling of the DOC.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Passive Diesel Particulate Filters on Heavy-Duty Vehicles

A multi-year technology validation program was completed in 2001 to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different diesel fleets operating in Southern California. The fuels used throughout the validation program were diesel fuels with less than 15-ppm sulfur content. Trucks and buses were retrofitted with two types of passive DPFs. Two rounds of emissions testing were performed to determine if there was any degradation in the emissions reduction. The results demonstrated robust emissions performance for each of the DPF technologies over a one-year period. Detailed descriptions of the overall program and results have been described in previous SAE publications [2, 3, 4, 5]. In 2002, a third round of emission testing was performed by NREL on a small subset of vehicles in the Ralphs Grocery Truck fleet that demonstrated continued robust emissions performance after two years of operation and over 220,000 miles.
Technical Paper

Investigations into NOx Aftertreatment with Urea SCR for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Future US emissions limits are likely to mean a sophisticated nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technique is required for all vehicles with a diesel engine, which is likely to be either NOx trap or selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology. To investigate the potential of SCR for NOx reduction on a light duty vehicle, a current model vehicle (EUII M1 calibration), of inertia weight 1810 kg, was equipped with an urea-based SCR injection system and non-vanadium, non-zeolitic SCR catalysts. To deal with carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and volatile organic fraction (VOF), a diesel oxidation catalyst was also incorporated into the system for most tests. Investigations into the effect of placing the oxidation catalyst at different positions in the system, changing the volume of the SCR catalysts, increasing system temperature through road load changes, varying the SCR catalyst composition, and changing the urea injection calibration are discussed.
Technical Paper

Impact of SCR Activity on Soot Regeneration and the Converse Effects of Soot Regeneration on SCR Activity on a Vanadia-SCRF®

The influence of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) activity on soot regeneration was investigated using engine test measurements with and without urea dosing on a vanadia-SCRF®1, also known as a vanadia SCR coated diesel particulate filter (V.SCR-DPF). The extent and rate of passive soot regeneration is significantly reduced in the presence of SCR activity especially at high temperatures (>250 °C). The reduction in soot regeneration is because some of the NO2, which would otherwise react with the soot, is consumed by SCR reactions and consequently the rate of soot regeneration is lower when urea is dosed. The converse effects of soot oxidation on SCR activity were studied separately by analysing steady-state light-off engine measurements with different initial soot loadings on the V.SCR-DPF. The measurements show an increase in NOX conversion with increasing soot loading.
Technical Paper

Geometric Description of the Soot Cake in a One-Dimensional Model of an Octo-Square Asymmetric Particulate Filter

Asymmetric particulate filters (PF), where the inlet channel is wider than the outlet channel, are commonly used because of their greater ash capacity. Surprisingly, very few models for asymmetric PFs have been published. This paper considers how to model the soot cake in octo-square asymmetric PFs. Some previous studies have neglected the octahedral shape of the inlet channel and instead assumed that the inlet channels were square. As the correct approach for modelling the soot cake is not obvious, three options are considered. The calculation of soot-loaded channel perimeter and hydraulic diameter (which are important for heat and mass transfer), soot thickness and backpressure as a function of soot loading are given for each geometry. In option 1, the shape of the soot-loaded channel is assumed to be geometrically similar to the soot-free channel.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-To-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT™ diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made. Bench scale fuel-engine compatibility testing showed the GTL fuel had cold flow properties suitable for year-round use in southern California and was additized to meet current lubricity standards. Bench scale elastomer compatibility testing returned results similar to those of CARB specification diesel fuel. The GTL fuel met or exceeded ASTM D975 fuel properties. Researchers used a chassis dynamometer to test emissions over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and New York City Bus (NYCB) cycles.
Technical Paper

Effects of Diesel Fuel Sulfur Level on Performance of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

This paper reports the test results from the DPF (diesel particulate filter) portion of the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects) Phase 1 test program. The DECSE program is a joint government and industry program to study the impact of diesel fuel sulfur level on aftertreatment devices. A systematic investigation was conducted to study the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on (1) the emissions performance and (2) the regeneration behavior of a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter. The tests were conducted on a Caterpillar 3126 engine with nominal fuel sulfur levels of 3 parts per million (ppm), 30 ppm, 150 ppm and 350 ppm.
Technical Paper

Effect of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter on Non-Regulated Emissions and Particle Size Distribution

The reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines is one of the most challenging problems associated with exhaust pollution control, second only to the control of NOx from any “lean burn” application. Particulate emissions can be controlled by adjustments to the combustion parameters of a diesel engine but these measures normally result in increased emissions of oxides of nitrogen. Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) hold out the prospect of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions and the task of actually removing the particles from the exhaust gas has been solved by the development of effective filtration materials. The question of the reliable regeneration of these filters in situ, however, remains a difficult hurdle. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from high engineering complexity and/or high energy demand. In addition some have special disadvantages under certain operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Distribution on Emissions Performance of Catalytic Converters

The emissions performance of catalytic converters under different conditions of flow distribution was investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods were utilised to model the maldistribution effects of different inlet cones. The effects of maldistribution on ageing, light-off and conversion were investigated using steady state tests on an engine bench. Emission testing was also conducted on a vehicle throughout ECE and EUDC test cycles. Maldistribution was found to have a significant effect on the efficiency of the catalyst during the early stages of the ECE cycle for both fresh and aged catalysts. The effects were less significant over later stages of the ECE cycle and throughout the EUDC except NOx where maldistribution did have an effect on the conversion at higher flow rates during the later stages of the test.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: A Fleet Start-Up Experience

Previous studies have shown that regenerating particulate filters are very effective at reducing particulate matter emissions from diesel engines. Some particulate filters are passive devices that can be installed in place of the muffler on both new and older model diesel engines. These passive devices could potentially be used to retrofit large numbers of trucks and buses already in service, to substantially reduce particulate matter emissions. Catalyst-type particulate filters must be used with diesel fuels having low sulfur content to avoid poisoning the catalyst. A project has been launched to evaluate a truck fleet retrofitted with two types of passive particulate filter systems and operating on diesel fuel having ultra-low sulfur content. The objective of this project is to evaluate new particulate filter and fuel technology in service, using a fleet of twenty Class 8 grocery store trucks. This paper summarizes the truck fleet start-up experience.
Technical Paper

Catalyst-Based BS VI Stage 2 Emission Control Solutions for Light Duty Diesel

Various types of after-treatment system for BS VI Stage 1 are being assessed for the Light Duty Diesel (LDD) segment. For BS VI Stage 2, Real Driving Emission (RDE) assessment will be newly introduced, which will require more robustness in emission control system capability. Although the detailed requirements for India BS VI stage 2 are still being discussed, a reasonable assumption is that similar systems to those being developed for Euro 6d, will work for India BS VI. This paper describes typical system designs for Euro 6d and also reveals newly developed SCRF® (Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter) based systems, which demonstrate excellent RDE emissions. In addition, newly developed Lean NOx Trap (NSC) coatings, which focus on low temperature NOx control used with SCRF® (NSC + SCRF®) also show excellent emission control capability as demonstrated in this case on the ARTEMIS Cycle. These systems have potential as promising LDD solutions for India BS VI stage 2.
Technical Paper

Ambient Temperature Light-off Aftertreatment System for Meeting ULEV Emission Standards

It has long been recognized that the key to achieving stringent emission standards such as ULEV is the control of cold-start hydrocarbons. This paper describes a new approach for achieving excellent cold-start hydrocarbon control. The most important component in the system is a catalyst that is highly active at ambient temperature for the exothermic CO oxidation reaction in an exhaust stream under net lean conditions. This catalyst has positive order kinetics with respect to CO for CO oxidation. Thus, as the concentration of CO in the exhaust is increased, the rate of this reaction is increased, resulting in a faster temperature rise over the catalyst.
Technical Paper

A One-Dimensional Model for Square and Octo-Square Asymmetric Particulate Filters with Correct Description of the Channel and Wall Geometry

Asymmetric particulate filters (PF), where the inlet channel is wider than the outlet channel, are commonly used because of their greater capacity for ash. Somewhat surprisingly, very few models for asymmetric PFs have been published and none of these gives a correct/detailed description of the geometry. For example, octahedral channels may be treated as if they were square or the tapering walls between the inlet and outlet channels treated as if they were rectangular in cross section. Alternatively, the equations may be presented in generic form in terms of channel cross-sectional areas and perimeters, but without giving any indication of how to calculate these. This paper aims to address these deficiencies with a model that correctly describes the geometry of square and octo-square asymmetric PFs. Expressions for the solid fraction of the PF (which affects thermal mass) and channel cross section and perimeter (both when clean and soot/ash loaded) are presented.