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Technical Paper

Visualization of the Gas Flow Field within a Diesel Particulate Filter Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an attractive method for fluid flow visualization. In this work, we show how MRI velocimetry techniques can be used to non-invasively investigate and visualize the hydrodynamics of exhaust gas in a diesel particulate filter (DPF), both when clean and after loading with diesel engine exhaust particulate matter. The measurements have been used to directly measure the gas flow in the inlet and outlet channels of the DPF, both axial profiles along the length and profiles across the channel diameter. Further, from this information we show that it is possible to indirectly ascertain the superficial wall-flow gas velocity and the soot loading profiles along the filter channel length.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Role of Filtered EGR on PM Emissions

In earlier work we have shown that engine operation with oxygenated fuels (e.g., biodiesel) reduces the particulate matter (PM) emissions and extends the engine tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) before it reaches smoke limited conditions. The same result has also been reported when high cetane number fuels such as gas-to-liquid (GTL) are used. A likely mechanism for engine-out particulate growth is the reintroduction of particle nuclei into the cylinder through EGR. These recirculated PM particles serve as sites for further condensation and accumulation promoting larger and greater number of particles. In order to further our understanding of EGR influence on total PM production, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) was integrated into the EGR loop. A PM reduction of approximately 50% (soot) was achieved with diesel fuel through filtered EGR, whilst still maintaining a significant NOX reduction.
Journal Article

Removal of Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter Using a Vanadia Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst: An Experimental and Modeling Study

The use of vanadia selective catalytic reduction (V-SCR) catalysts for NOX reduction from diesel engine exhaust is well known. These catalysts are also active for hydrocarbon (HC) and particulate matter (PM) oxidation. This dual functionality (oxidation and reduction) of V-SCR catalysts can help certain applications achieve the legislative limits with an improved margin. In this work, NOX reduction, HC and CO oxidation over V-SCR were studied independently and simultaneously in microreactor tests. The effect of various parameters (HC speciation, concentration, ANR, and NO₂/NOX ratio) was investigated and the data was used to develop a kinetic model. Oxidation of CO, C₃H₆, and n-C₁₀H₂₂ is first order in CO/HC, while C₇H₈ oxidation is less than first order in C₇H₈. All these reactions were zero order in O₂. Oxidation activity decreased in order: C₇H₈ ≻ n-C₁₀H₂₂ ≻ C₃H₆ ≻ CO. HC oxidation was inhibited by NH₃.
Journal Article

Reformate Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR) Effect on Particulate Matter (PM), Soot Oxidation and Three Way Catalyst (TWC) Performance in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have become very attractive in transportation due to several benefits over preceding engine technologies. However, GDI engines are associated with higher levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions, which is a major concern for human health. The aim of this work is to broaden the understanding of the effect of hydrogen combustion and the influence of the three way catalytic converter (TWC) on PM emission characteristics. The presence of hydrogen in GDI engines has been reported to reduce fuel consumption and improve the combustion process, making it possible to induce higher rates of EGR. A prototype exhaust fuel reformer build for on-board vehicle hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) production has been integrated within the engine operation and studied in this work.
Technical Paper

On board Exhaust Gas Reforming of Gasoline Using Integrated Reformer & TWC

Producing on-board the hydrogen that is to be used as supplementary fuel by exhaust gas reforming of gasoline shows encouraging results. Extensive research has been done at the University of Birmingham towards on board generation of hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel. Exhaust gas reforming which utilizes water vapor and enthalpy from the hot engine exhaust gas was applied using a compact system of a fuel reformer reactor integrated with the three way catalytic converter (TWC). Such system can be fitted in the limited space close to the engine. The device has been designed and built in concentric shape with the catalytic converter as a core and the reformer in an annular shape outside, to best utilize the waste heat from the catalytic converter. It requires very little extra space beyond the baseline catalytic converter.
Journal Article

Modeling the Emissions Control Performance of a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) System for Light Duty Diesel Applications

The use of catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) systems in light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles is becoming increasingly common. The primary functions of the system are to remove carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) from the vehicle exhaust stream, while simultaneously reducing the level of particulate matter (PM) emissions to ambient background levels. These systems can comprise either a separate diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream CDPF, or a single unit CDPF with the DOC functions incorporated within the CDPF. The single CDPF unit provides higher regeneration efficiency as it is located nearer to the engine and also cost benefits, as only a single unit is required compared to the alternative separate DOC and CDPF arrangement. A model describing the performance of the single unit CDPF for emissions control has been developed, with particular emphasis on achieving predictions of the CO and HC emissions over transient vehicle drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter (CCR-DPF) System: Model Development and Passive Regeneration Studies

Particulate Matter (PM) emissions are of increasing importance, as diesel emissions legislation continues to tighten around the world. Diesel PM can be controlled using Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), which can effectively reduce the level of carbon (soot) emissions to ambient background levels. The Johnson Matthey Continuously Regenerating Trap (CRT®) [1], which will be referred to as the Continuously Regenerating DPF (CR-DPF) for the remainder of this paper, has been widely applied in Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) applications, and has been proved to have outstanding field durability [2]. To widen the potential application of this system, addition of a platinum based catalyst to the DPF has been shown to lead to a higher PM removal rate under passive regeneration conditions, using the NOx contained in the exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Non-Road Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems: Diesel Oxidation and Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalysts

The aftertreatment challenge in the non-road market is making the same system work and fit not just in one machine, but in hundreds of different machines, some of which can be used for many different purposes. This huge diversity of applications and the relatively small unit numbers for each application, coupled with the rapid introduction of new standards and the very high performance needed from the engines and machines, requires a sophisticated approach to product development. Furthermore, as emissions requirements become ever more stringent, designing a system to meet the legislation subject to packaging and cost constraints becomes progressively more difficult. This is further exacerbated by increasing system complexity, where more than one technology may be required to control all the legislated pollutants and/or an active control strategy is involved. Also a very high degree of component integration is required.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Dual Layer Ammonia Slip Catalysts (ASC)

In recent years, ammonia slip catalysts (ASC) are being used downstream of an SCR system to minimize the ammonia slip. The dual-layer ASC is more attractive for its bi-functionality in reducing the ammonia and NOX emissions. It consists of two layers with the upper layer comprising a component with SCR functionality and the lower layer a PGM containing catalyst with oxidation functionality. Thus, both oxidation and SCR reactions take place in two different layers and are interlinked by the inter-layer mass transfer mechanism. In addition, adsorption and desorption kinetics between the gas and solid phases play a significant role. Mathematically, the overall system is a complex system of mass, momentum and energy transfer equations with temporal and spatial variables in both axial and radial directions. In this work, we focus on devising a suitable, computationally inexpensive model for such ASCs to be efficiently used for design, control and system optimization studies.
Technical Paper

Modeling an Ammonia SCR DeNOx Catalyst: Model Development and Validation

A 1-D numerical model describing the ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) de-NOx process has been developed based on data measured on a laboratory microreactor for a vanadia-titania washcoated catalyst system. Kinetics for various NH3-NOx reactions were investigated, as well as those for ammonia, CO and hydrocarbon oxidation. The model has been successfully validated against engine bench measurements, over light-off and ESC tests, under a wide range of conditions, e.g. flow rate, temperature, NO2/NO ratio, and ammonia injection rate. A very good agreement between the experimental data and the model has been achieved. The model has now been used to predict the effect of NO2/NO ratio on NOx conversion, and the effect of different ammonia injection rates on the efficiency of the SCR process.
Technical Paper

Microkinetic Modelling for Propane Oxidation in Channel Flows of a Silver-Based Automotive Catalytic Converter

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate chemical reactions and transport phenomena occurring in a single channel of a honeycomb-type automotive catalytic converter under lean burn combustion. Microkinetic analysis is adopted to develop a detailed elementary reaction mechanism for propane oxidation on a silver catalyst. Activation energies are calculated based on the theory of the Unity Bond Index-Quadratic Exponential Potential (UBI-QEP) method. The order-of-magnitude of the pre-exponential factors is obtained from Transition State Theory (TST). Sensitivity analysis is applied to identify the important elementary steps and refine the pre-exponential factors of these reactions. These pre-exponential factors depend on inlet temperatures and propane concentration; therefore optimised pre-exponential factors are written in polynomial forms. The results of numerical simulations are validated by comparison with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Fe-Zeolite SCR Model Development, Validation and Application

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology has been widely studied for removal of NOX from the exhaust of diesel engines. To design and optimize diesel engine aftertreatment systems including an SCR catalyst component, a reliable SCR model is a very useful tool, to aid in system integration and control algorithm testing. In this paper, the development of a one-dimensional numerical model for a Fe-Zeolite-based SCR catalyst (hydrothermally aged for 100 hours at 650°C in 10% H₂O in air) is presented, followed by its validation and application. The resulting model is capable of predicting NOX reduction efficiency under various operating conditions as a function of gas hourly space velocity (SV), temperature, NO₂/NOX ratio and NH₃ to NOX (ANR) ratios; NH₃ slip and N₂O formation are also correctly predicted by the model. Extensive validation of the model has been carried out against engine test data for both steady state light-off and the heavy-duty FTP transient cycle (HD-FTP).
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modelling Study of Cold Start Effects on a Cu-Zeolite NH3 Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst

Microreactor, engine bench tests and modelling studies have been carried out to understand the influence of cold start (low temperatures) on the performance of NH3/urea-SCR automotive exhaust aftertreatment systems. Water storage experiments using Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) coupled with numerical modelling demonstrated that the exo/endo-therms associated with water adsorption and desorption at temperatures below 150°C strongly influence the catalyst temperature. Appreciable amounts of NO and NO2 could be stored on the catalyst during reactor or engine testing in the absence of any NH3 (blank tests). Modelling studies at different inlet NO2/NOx ratios demonstrated some of the influences of these surface adsorbed species on the performance of the SCR system during cold start.
Journal Article

Development of a Particulate Filter Model for the Prediction of Backpressure: Improved Momentum Balance and Entrance and Exit Effect Equations

The development of a one-dimensional model for the prediction of backpressure across a gasoline or diesel particulate filter (PF) is presented. The model makes two innovations: Firstly, the term for momentum convection in the gas momentum balance equations includes the loss (or gain) of axial momentum in the direction perpendicular to the channels; neglecting this results in the momentum convection term being too large. Secondly, equations for the pressure change due to the abrupt contraction at the PF entrance and for abrupt expansion at the exit are derived which take into account the fact that the velocity profile across the channels is not flat; often workers have used equations appropriate for high Reynolds numbers which assume flat velocity profiles. The model has been calibrated/tested against cold flow data for more than one length of PF. The use of more than one length allows along-filter pressure losses to be separated from entrance and exit effects.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a One-Dimensional Computational Model of the Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter (CR-DPF) System

Diesel emissions legislation continues to tighten around the world, and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions are currently the focus of much attention. Diesel PM can be controlled using Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), which can effectively reduce the level of carbon (soot) emissions to ambient background levels. In the Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) area, the Continuously Regenerating Trap (CRT®) [1] has been widely applied in the retrofit market. This system will henceforth be referred to as the Continuously Regenerating DPF (CR-DPF). There are currently over 100,000 of these systems in use in retrofit applications worldwide. This system comprises a specially formulated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) upstream of a DPF; the NO2 generated by the DOC is used to combust the carbon collected in the DPF at low temperatures. A model describing the performance of the CR-DPF has been developed.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Model

A one-dimensional numerical model for a Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst has been developed. The model is based on kinetics developed from laboratory microreactor data for the various NH₃-NOX reactions, as well as for NH₃ oxidation. The kinetic scheme used is discussed and evidence for it presented. The model is capable of predicting the conversion of NO and NO₂, NH₃ slip and the formation of N₂O, as well as effects associated with NH₃ storage and desorption. To obtain a good prediction of catalyst temperature during cold start tests, it was found necessary to include storage and desorption of H₂O in the model; storage of H₂O is associated with a sizable exotherm and the subsequent desorption of this water produces a correspondingly large endotherm.