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Technical Paper

the potential of Unconventional Powerplants for Vehicle Propulsion

1959-01-01
590039
COMPARISON of work capacity per unit mass and volume of different energy carriers shows that liquid hydrocarbons are superior to other energy sources. Solar and nuclear powerplants as well as their use in conjunction with a steam engine are examined in this paper. Suitability of an electric drive is discussed. Using a production 2-stroke diesel engine and its development forecast, a comparison is made of spark ignition, diesel, and gas turbine engines. The status of the free-piston engine turbine combination is reviewed.
Book

Wireless Charging Technology and The Future of Electric Transportation

2015-06-08
Around the world, the major automakers are developing their strategies for conductive and wireless charging technologies, with concerted efforts to establish technical standards on wireless electric vehicle charging, mainly focused on the safety considerations and inter-operability. Wireless Charging Technology and the Future of Electric Transportation covers the current status of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology and its potential applications to the future road and rail transportation systems. Focusing on the applications of WPT technology to electric vehicle charging and the future green transportation field, Wireless Charging Technology and the Future of Electric Transportation was written collaboratively by nine experts in the field, led by Dr. In-Soo Suh, a professor and researcher from the Korean Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST).
Technical Paper

Washcoat Technology and Precious Metal Loading Study Targeting the California LEV MDV2 Standard

1996-10-01
961904
Meeting the California Medium-Duty truck emissions standards presents a significant challenge to automotive engineers due to the combination of sustained high temperature exhaust conditions, high flow rates and relatively high engine out emissions. A successful catalyst for an exhaust treatment system must be resistant to high temperature deactivation, maintain cold start performance and display high three-way conversion efficiencies under most operating conditions. This paper describes a catalyst technology and precious metal loading study targeting a California Medium-Duty truck LEV (MDV2) application. At the same time a direction is presented for optimizing toward the Federal Tier 1 standard through reduction of precious metal use. The paper identifies catalytic formulations for a twin substrate, 1.23 L medium-coupled converter. Two are used per vehicle, mounted 45 cm downstream of each manifold on a 5.7 L V8 engine.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cross Wind Air Flow Analysis

1997-04-08
971517
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has been used to analyze vehicle air flow. In cross wind conditions an asymmetrical flow field around the vehicle is present. Under these circumstances, in addition to the forces present with symmetric air flow (drag and lift forces and pitching moment), side forces and moments (rolling and yawing) occur. Issues related to fuel economy, driveability, sealing effects (caused by suction exerted on the door), structural integrity (sun roof, spoiler), water management (rain deposit), and dirt deposit (shear stress) have been investigated. Due to the software developments and computer hardware improvements, results can be obtained within a reasonable time frame with excellent accuracy (both geometry and analytical solution). The flow velocity, streamlines, pressure field, and component forces can be extracted from the analysis results through visualization to identify potential improvement areas.
Technical Paper

Vapor-Locking Tendencies of Fuels A Practical Approach

1958-01-01
580034
THIS paper describes what the authors consider to be a simplified method of determining the vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines. The study of vapor lock was undertaken after they found the Reid vapor pressure method to be inadequate. The result of their work was the development of the General Motors vapor pressure, a single number which predicts vapor-locking tendency. The authors point out the following advantages of the new method: It allows direct comparisons of vapor-lock test results of different reference fuel systems; establishes distribution curves of volatility requirements of cars for vapor-lock free operation and of vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines; is a common reference value for both petroleum and automotive engineers. Finally, it more realistically evaluates the effects of small weathering losses on vapor-locking tendency than does Rvp.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

The Electronically Controlled 6.5L Diesel Engine

1993-11-01
932983
For model year 1994, General Motors has completed the roll out of the 6.5L Diesel Engine, with the introduction of the light duty certified naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. At the heart of the expanded use of the 6.5L is a new electronic powertrain control system. The objectives for this system were to produce an engine that has less variation, is easier to assemble, low cost and capable of meeting both heavy and light duty future emissions requirements. Control features include Fuel Quantity and Timing, EGR, Wastegate, Glow Plugs, Transmission, Cruise Control and Diagnostics.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Two-Stage Fuel Injection on Dimethyl-ether (DME) Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Combustion

2009-09-13
2009-24-0104
Two-stage injection strategy was studied in dimethyl-ether homogeneous charge compression ignition engine combustion. An early direct injection, main injection, was applied to form a premixed charge followed by the second injection after the start of heat release. Experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system, and the combustion performance and exhaust emissions were tested with the various second injection timings and quantities. Engine speed was 1200 rpm, and the load was fixed at 0.2 MPa IMEP. Main injection timing for homogeneous mixture was fixed at −80 CAD, and the fuel quantity was adjusted to the fixed load. Second injection quantity was varied from 1 to 5 mg, and the timing was selected according to the heat release rate of the HCCI combustion without second injection.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Head Gasket Geometry on Engine-Out HC Emissions from S.I. Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3580
This study evaluated multi-layer steel and composite head gaskets of various thicknesses (0.43 to 1.5 mm) and fire-ring diameters to determine the influence of head gasket crevices on engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. The upper limit in the percent reduction in HC emissions from gasket-design modifications is estimated to be about 15%. At part-load conditions, the lowest HC emissions were measured for head-gasket thickness of about 1 mm. Significantly smaller thicknesses of the order of 0.4 mm result in an increase in HC emissions. Substantial hydrocarbon-emissions advantage may be realized by minimizing the gasket-to-cylinder bore offset.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust System Geometry on Exhaust Dilution and Odor Intensity

1971-02-01
710219
Diesel exhaust gas dilution and odor intensity were measured in the immediate vicinity of a transit bus equipped with a rear-mounted horizontal exhaust pipe, a rear-mounted vertical exhaust pipe, and a roof-top diffusion system. Exhaust dilution ratios were measured indoors during vehicle idle operation, using propane added to the exhaust gas as a tracer. Exhaust odor intensities were measured also indoors during vehicle idle operation by a human panel, using a threshold odor measurement technique. On the average, the dilution of the exhaust gas around the bus with the vertical exhaust pipe was about eight times greater than it was with the horizontal pipe. Odor intensity, as measured by the threshold response distance, was about 35% less with the vertical pipe than with the horizontal pipe. The roof-top diffuser was not as effective as the vertical exhaust pipe in increasing exhaust gas dilution or in reducing exhaust odor intensity.
Technical Paper

The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

2001-03-05
2001-01-1132
The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
Technical Paper

The Automobile: Unwanted Technology - The Later Years Part I: Cars and Crises 1960-1990 Part II: The Dawning of Automotive Electronics

1992-02-01
920845
Several factors have influenced the size and design of domestic passenger cars over the past 30 years. Of most significance has been the influx of imported cars, initially from Europe, later from Japan. Interspersed within the fabric of this influx have been two energy crises and several recessions, and the onset of safety, emission, and energy regulations. These factors have led to various responses by domestic manufacturers as indicated by the types of products and vehicle systems that they have introduced during this period. This paper chronicles both the events as well as the responses.
Technical Paper

Static Electricity in Automotive Interiors

1999-03-01
1999-01-0631
Seats and carpets were evaluated for generating static charges on vehicle occupants. Active measures that eliminate or reduce static accumulation, and passive measures that dissipate static charge in a controlled manner were investigated. The active measures include using durable anti-static finishes or conductive filaments in seating fabrics. The passive measures include adopting conductive plastics in a steering wheel, seat belt buckle release button, or door opening handle. The effectiveness of these measures was tested in a low humidity environment.
Technical Paper

Squeak Studies on Material Pairs

1999-05-17
1999-01-1727
Advancements in the area of noise and vibration control have succeeded in quieting the vehicle to the point that previously obscure squeak and rattles must now be addressed. One possible way to decrease the squeak levels is by judicious selection of the material friction pairs. The squeak levels produced by a given material friction pair are a function of a number of test conditions like interference, temperature, humidity and excitation frequency. This paper experimentally studies the dependence of squeak levels on these factors. Understanding the relationship between squeak and test conditions will guide the selection of materials and help us to carefully select the test conditions for squeak evaluations. It will also result in cost reductions to otherwise numerous and expensive squeak parameter testing.
Technical Paper

Squeak Studies on Material Pair Compatibility

2001-04-30
2001-01-1546
The more noise and vibration improvements are incorporated into our vehicles, the more customers notice squeaks and rattles (S&R). Customers increasingly perceive S&R as a direct indicator of vehicle build quality and durability. The high profile nature of S&R has the automotive industry striving to develop the understanding and technology of how to improve the S&R performance in the vehicle. Squeaks and itches make up a significant amount of Squeak and Rattle complaints found in today's vehicles. Squeaks and itches are the result of stick slip behavior between two interacting surfaces. Squeak itch behavior is dependent upon a large number of parameters including but not limited to: the material itself, temperature, humidity, normal load, system compliance, part geometry, velocity, surface roughness, wear, contaminants, etc. This paper will describe the analysis of sound data and friction data and the relationship between them.
Technical Paper

Simplified Multiple Sliding Mode Transient Control with VGT and EGR Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0345
This paper deals with the simplification and optimization methods in diesel engine control which is based on the air management system model of 1stage VTG and HP-EGR. Especially, simplified model based controller is suggested including more tracking performance of target values for comparison from previous multivariable sliding mode controller with intake and exhaust manifold output set. Moreover, in calculating desired exhaust manifold pressure, the simple process which only use target flow rates is suggested. There are fewer errors than general process's which have to add the target state process including the turbocharger parameter errors. Model based controller has assumption that mathematical model has to be very accurate, therefore, has to reflect the physical engine properties in every operating point. But, it is hard to satisfy this assumption because of the modeling uncertainties in mathematical point and a variety of environmental factor in real engine.
Journal Article

Signal Processing for Rough Road Detection

2010-04-12
2010-01-0673
Misfire diagnostics are required to detect missed combustion events which may cause an increase in emissions and a reduction in performance and fuel economy. If the misfire detection system is based on crankshaft speed measurement, driveline torque variations due to rough road can hinder the diagnosis of misfire. A common method of rough road detection uses the ABS (Anti-Lock Braking System) module to process wheel speed sensor data. This leads to multiple integration issues including complexities in interacting with multiple suppliers, inapplicability in certain markets and lower reliability of wheel speed sensors. This paper describes novel rough road detection concepts based on signal processing and statistical analysis without using wheel speed sensors. These include engine crankshaft and Transmission Output Speed (TOS) sensing information. Algorithms that combine adaptive signal processing and specific statistical analysis of this information are presented.
Technical Paper

Selection and Development of a Particulate Trap System for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920142
In order to meet progressively stringent regulations on particulate emission from diesel engines, GM has developed and tested a variety of trap oxidizer systems over the years. A particulate trap system for a light duty diesel engine has been selected and developed based on this experience, with particular emphasis on production feasibility. The system components have been designed and developed in collaboration with potential suppliers, to the extent possible. The technical performance of this system has been demonstrated by successful system durability testing in the test cell and vehicle experience in computer controlled automatic operation mode. Although the system shows promise, its production readiness will require more development and extensive vehicle validation under all operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Reducing Catalytic Converter Pressure Loss with Enhanced Inlet-Header Diffusion

1995-10-01
952398
The function of the inlet header of a catalytic converter is to diffuse the inlet exhaust flow, decreasing its velocity and increasing its static pressure with as little loss in total pressure as possible. In practice, very little diffusion takes place in most catalytic converter inlet headers because the flow separates at the interface of the pipe and the tapered section leading to the substrate. This leads to increased converter pressure loss and flow maldistribution. An improved inlet-header design called the Enhanced Diffusion Header (EDH) was developed which combines a short, shallow-angle diffuser with a more abrupt expansion to the substrate cross section. Tests conducted in room air (cold flow) and engine exhaust showed that improved inlet-jet diffusion leads to substantial reductions in converter restriction. EDH performance was not compromised by the presence of a right-angle bend upstream of the converter.
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