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Technical Paper

Vertical Drop Test of a Transport Fuselage Section

The Structures and Materials Research Center of the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) conducted a vertical drop test of a fuselage section from a NAMC YS-11 transport airplane in December2001. This test program is a part of research activities in NAL on the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft. In addition a cooperative research related to this test program was carried out between NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.(KHI). The main objective of this program is to develop optimal numerical models for crash simulation of aircraft fuselage and to obtain background data by drop tests of small-scale structural models and a full-scale fuselage section. Prior to the drop test of a full-scale fuselage structure, a trial numerical simulation on the crash behavior of a small-scale sub-floor structure was conducted by NAL using the explicit, nonlinear dynamic analysis code, LS-DYNA3D.
Technical Paper

Temperature and Humidity Control System of JEM

A Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) assembly an essential system in order to provide comfortable environment for crew members in Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Development of an engineering model (EM) and a proto model (PM) of JEM THC assembly started from March 1991 and completed on March 1995 successfully. In this development phase, it is called JEM EM phase, qualification test of THC was conducted to verify the THC design. This paper presents JEM THC design and an outline of the assembly model development.
Technical Paper


In the closed environments such as manned space station, it is necessary to remove contaminant gas to keep a suitable environment. Removal of gaseous contaminants generated from crew, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (abbreviated as CEEF). CEEF consist of three modules for habitat, animal and plant, the supporting facilities for each module and a plant cultivation facility. CEEF are scheduled to be constructed from 1994 in Aomori Prefecture, northern part of Japan. For designing Trace Contaminant Control Assembly (TCCA) for CEEF, the following six (6) trace contaminants have been selected as major contaminant gas in CEEF; Ammonia (NH3) Methane (CH4) Ethylene (C2H4) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Ethylene is well-known as an aggressive contaminant to plant growth and maturity.
Technical Paper

TDMA Air-to-Air Surveillance System for Helicopter Safety

The authors developed an air-to-air surveillance system that acquires mutual position and informs the position to the pilot. This system transmits position information obtained by GPS via TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) datalink. Position information received from other aircraft is shown on a display. If proximity condition exists, voice alert is activated. This system can be used as an support system for collision avoidance. This paper describes the outline of the system and flight test result. Two prototype systems were installed on two helicopters. The third system was installed on a ground vehicle. Flight tests were performed using these three systems.
Technical Paper

System Studies of Advanced Single-Phase Fluid Loop with Honeycomb-Cored Cold Plate

The feasibility study of the thermal control system for medium size or large size satellites was conducted to investigate the capabilities and specifications of devices such as cold plates, a radiator, a mechanical pump, and so on. In the first step of the system development demonstration, the cold plate was selected to investigate the performance among these devices. In this paper, the system concept of the advanced single-phase fluid loop and the evaluation by numerical analysis and experiments are described.
Technical Paper

Summary of Vertical Drop Tests of YS-11 Transport Fuselage Sections

Structures and Materials Research Center of the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) conducted vertical drop tests of fuselage sections of a NAMC YS-11 A-200 transport airplane. This test program is a part of research activities in NAL on the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft. In addition a cooperative research related to this test program has been carried out by NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.(KHI). The main objectives of this program are to develop optimal numerical models for crash simulation of aircraft fuselage and to obtain background data by drop tests of full-scale fuselage sections under a controlled impact condition. Two sections of the fuselage structure with seats and passenger dummies were tested at different drop velocity to a rigid impact surface(concrete). Finite element models of the test articles for simulation of vertical drop tests were developed using a nonlinear dynamic analysis code, LS-DYNA3D.
Technical Paper

Stability and Control Augmentation System of “ASKA”

“ASKA” is a STOL airplane with Upper Surface Blown type (USB) flaps used to perform research on powered lift technology developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL). ASKA has four high bypass ratio turbofan engines mounted above and forward of the wings, hydraulically actuated flight controls, and the Stability and Control Augmentation System (SCAS). The SCAS is a triple redundant system with three digital computers. In order to develop and evaluate its control laws, flight simulator tests have been conducted for 9 years during the design phase. Four flights have been devoted to evaluate functions of the SCAS and the control laws. The significant features of the control laws are to realize satisfactory flying qualities in the deep backside region at low airspeeds.
Technical Paper

Refill Friction Spot Joining for Aerospace Application

In the modern aircraft manufacturing, the cost reduction, the manufacturing time reduction, and the weight saving of aircraft are strongly demanded. The Refill Friction Spot Joining [1,2](FSJ, in other words FSSW, Friction Stir Spot Welding), which is one of innovative solid-state joining methodologies based on the Friction Stir Welding[3], is a promising technology that can replace rivets and fasteners. This technology is expected to offer cost reduction and weight saving for the aircraft manufacturing. In this study, to make stronger and reliable joints, the shoulder-plunging process of Refill FSJ was employed. The weldability of the Alodine or Chromic Acid Anodize coated materials along with a faying-surface sealant was investigated. The joint properties, such as tensile shear strengths and corrosion resistance, were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Limit Cycle in the Longitudinal Motion of the USB STOL ASKA - Control System Functional Mockup and Actual Aircraft

The Japanese Quiet Short Take Off and Landing experimental aircraft named ASKA was developed and flight tested during 1977 till 1989. The control system hard and software were examined by the functional mock-up with using the actual hardware. The small longitudinal limit cycle was observed in the closed loop test when the Pitch Control Wheel Steering software was on in the mock-up testing. In this paper, first, the method to analyze and to expect the limit cycle based on the describing function was shown. The limit cycle was induced due to the nonlinearities in the automatic control mechanism. The nonlinearities in the hardware were examined to make the model to simulate the system on the computer. The method was shown effective to predict the limit cycle in the mock-up. Second, with using the flight measured dynamics, the limit cycle was concluded as on border line between existing and not, which coincides with the actual flight result.
Technical Paper

Inlet Unstart Influence on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Next Generation Supersonic Transport (SST)

The impact of inlet unstart phenomena on supersonic transport (SST) was investigated by wind tunnel testing. Inlet unstart condition was simulated by controlling the captured mass flow by the inlet. Unsteady pressures on the lower surface of wing and unsteady forces of the wind tunnel model were measured. Unsteady pressure measurement was carried out to detect shock wave motion. Unsteady force measurement by using both internal balance and accelerometers was to estimate axial/angular acceleration of airframe when inlet unstart was occurred. The pressure measurement data revealed that shock location fluctuated with dominant frequency although the controlled mass flow was steady. And it was analytically shown that the dominant frequency is corresponding to the first order frequency of organ pipe resonance.
Technical Paper

Improved Briles Rivet Forming Using High-Speed Force Feedback and Improved Die Geometry

Electroimpact and Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) have produced a new riveting process for the forming of Briles type rivets in Boeing 777 and 777X fuselage assemblies. The Briles rivet is typically used for fuselage assembly and is unique in that it has a self-sealing head. Unlike conventional headed rivets such as the NAS1079, this fastener does not require aircraft sealant under the head to be fluid tight. This unique fastener makes for a difficult fastening process due to the fact that interference must be maintained between the hole and fastener shank, as well as along the sides of the fastener head. Common issues with the formed fasteners include gapping under the fastener head and along the shank of the fastener. Electroimpact has employed a host of different technologies to combat these issues with Briles fastening. First, Electroimpact’s patented “Air Gap” system allows the machine to confirm that the head of the rivet is fully seated in the countersink prior to forming.
Technical Paper

Experiment of Two-Phase Flow Loop Thermal Control System Using Test Rocket

This paper describes results of the thermal-hydraulic performance experiment system (THYPES) of the two-phase flow loop thermal control system using the test rocket which can maintain a gravity level of 10-4G for about six minutes. Feasibility study of this system had been conducted for loading into a experiment module of test rocket TR-IA No. 3. In 1991, engineering model of the experiment system was designed and manufactured in order to investigate its function, performance, and endurance against launching conditions. In 1992, flight model of the experiment system was designed and manufactured. The following tests were conducted so as to ensure the capability and compatibility of THYPES; functional test, performance test, environmental test, and interface tests between the experiment system and rocket avionics section. The experiment was performed on September 17, 1993 and the results are evolved.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stability Analysis of High-Speed Traction Drive CVT for Aircraft Power Generation

The traction-drive integrated drive generator (T-IDG®) has been developed since 1999 to replace current hydrostatic transmission drive generators mounted on Japanese military aircraft. The T-IDG® consists of a generator and a half-toroidal traction-drive continuously variable transmission (CVT), which maintains a constant output speed of 24000 rpm, that is, a 400 Hz AC power supply. To cope with recent trends of more electric aircraft (MEA) and the need for weight reduction, a high-speed traction-drive CVT is advantageous over other transmissions. The torque on the half-toroidal variator is transmitted through multiple power rollers. The equal load sharing among power rollers is typically controlled by a mechanical hydraulic feedback system, whose stability is one of the main issues for the high-speed traction-drive CVT. Previous studies have shown that insufficient damping and stiffness of the mechanical hydraulic feedback system cause self-induced vibration.
Technical Paper

Development of the Isolation Chamber

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is constructing the Isolation Chamber in Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC) by March 1996. The Isolation Chamber will be used to basic training for Japanese astronauts, development for crew training technology and research for manned space technology. This paper describes the outline of the Isolation Chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of a Drill Bit for CFRP/Aluminum-Alloy Stack: To Improve Flexibility, Economical Efficiency and Work Environment

In the expansion of composite material application, it is one of the most important subjects in assembly of aircraft structure how drilling of composite/metal stack should be processed in an efficient way. This paper will show the result of development of a drill bit for CFRP/Aluminum-alloy stack by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) and Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal (SEH). In order to improve workability and economic performance, the drill bit which enables drilling CFRP/Al-alloy stack: at 1 shot; from both directions; without air blow and coolant (just usual vacuuming); was required. A best mix drill bit which has smooth multi angles edge and pointed finishing edge was produced as a result of some trials. Developed drill bit achieved required performance and contributed to large cost reduction, labor hour saving, production speed increase and work environment improvement.
Technical Paper

Development of Oxygen Generation System for a Long Manned Mission

An Oxygen Generation System (OGS) is an indispensable system for a long manned space mission. A Solid Polymer Water Electrolysis System (SPWES) has been developing by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. for a future space mission since 1985. The authors have been studying the SPWES of a new solid polymer electrolyte with simplified cell structure. We presented the initial study results until 1993 at the former International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) shown in REFERENCE. The study was focused on the development of a SPWE cell at ambient pressure. This paper describes a follow-on study results related to development activity of a pressure cell module especially.
Technical Paper

Development of Oxygen Generation System for Spacecraft

Regenerative processes for the air revitalization system of spacecraft atmosphere are essential for realization of long-term manned space missions. These processes include Oxygen (O2) Generation System (OGS) through water electrolysis. The authors have been studying O2 generation system of a new Solid Polymer Water Electrolyte (SPWE) with simplified cell structure since 1985. The initial study results until 1991 were presented in the 21st and the former International Conference on Environmental Systems shown in REFERENCE. This paper describes a follow-on study activity to OGS which focuses on the improvement of cell endurance performance and resource.
Technical Paper

Desorbing Test on Trace Contaminants for the Japanese Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

In the closed environments, removal of trace contaminants generated from persons, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level. We conducted the fundamental tests in order to confirm design of TCCA (Trace Contaminants Control Assembly) for Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), and obtained the following results; 1) The palladium-on-alumina catalyst is suitable for CO, CH4, C2H4 conversion at temperature lower than 400°C. 2) The alkali impregnated AC (activated charcoal) is effective for NO2, SO2 removal and prevents catalyst poisoning from SO2. 3) The active-desorbing conducted by hot air blow-throw an AC is effective for C2H5OH, CH2Cl2 desorbing. We discuss the fundamental test and design conditions for TCCA.
Technical Paper

Application of Active Control Technologies and Structural Optimization for Supersonic Commercial Transport

A design procedure is presented which utilizes (1) the active control technologies such as Flutter Mode Control, Gust Load Alleviation and Maneuver Load Control to relax the strength and stiffness requirements on wing structure, and (2) structural optimization to derive the minimum weight composite wing structures satisfying the relaxed structural requirements. The design procedure is applied to the preliminary design study of a Supersonic Commercial Transport configuration with laminated composite wing structure. Four design configurations are compared. Maximum of about 30% structural weight reduction was achieved from the quasi-isotropic design. Also some insights on the characteristics of the Supersonic Commercial Transport configuration are discussed.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of Boundary Layer Control System for NAL QSTOL Research Aircraft ‘ASKA’

“ASKA” developed by National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) is a quiet, short take-off and landing (QSTOL) research aircraft adopting upper surface blowing (USB) concept as a powered high lift system. To achieving sufficient STOL performance by augmenting stall angle of attack and roll control power, blowing BLC technique was applied to the outboard leading edges and ailerons.Supplied high pressure air to save the BLC piping space,the BLC system which was fit for use of high pressure air was developed. The BLC system, in which BLC air is discharged by a series of discrete jets from small drilled holes (0.8 ∼ 3.0 mm in diameter) arranged in a raw, is one of the unique features of the aircraft. In this paper, the summaries of aerodynamic development of the BLC system are described except for the air piping system.