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Technical Paper

Vertical Drop Test of a Transport Fuselage Section

The Structures and Materials Research Center of the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) conducted a vertical drop test of a fuselage section from a NAMC YS-11 transport airplane in December2001. This test program is a part of research activities in NAL on the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft. In addition a cooperative research related to this test program was carried out between NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.(KHI). The main objective of this program is to develop optimal numerical models for crash simulation of aircraft fuselage and to obtain background data by drop tests of small-scale structural models and a full-scale fuselage section. Prior to the drop test of a full-scale fuselage structure, a trial numerical simulation on the crash behavior of a small-scale sub-floor structure was conducted by NAL using the explicit, nonlinear dynamic analysis code, LS-DYNA3D.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility Study of a Design Concept of Electric Motorcycle

As for automobile, the mass production period of Electric Vehicle(EV) has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for EV-Motorcycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies' releases. The design and evaluation methodologies are not yet established or standardized so far. This paper provides the practical and the experimental examples. To study the feasibility of EV-MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers' parts environments, and evaluated them by the practical view of the MC usage. The developed EV-MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc internal combustion engine(ICE)-MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use.
Technical Paper

The Development of One Liter Motorcycle Engines

A new 0.9-liter 4-valve-per-cylinder liquid cooled engine was developed for 1984 model motorcycles. This new engine was optimized from the standpoint of performance, durability, and weight efficiency. Semi-Flat slide carburetors, high compression ratio, relatively short stroke and large valves were employed. This engine was upgraded every other year with changes in displacement. Induction system, exhaust system, and valve train. This paper describes, from the viewpoint of the designer, the evolution of the 4-valve liquid-cooled engine from the 1984 to 1988 models. In that evolutionary process we employed: (1) semi-down draft carburetors with smooth air ducts, (2) a computer-aided intake and exhaust port design and manufacturing system. (3) individual rocker arms. (4) a cool air intake system. (5) lightweight pistons. (6) angle -controlled tightening of connecting rod bolts.
Technical Paper

TDMA Air-to-Air Surveillance System for Helicopter Safety

The authors developed an air-to-air surveillance system that acquires mutual position and informs the position to the pilot. This system transmits position information obtained by GPS via TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) datalink. Position information received from other aircraft is shown on a display. If proximity condition exists, voice alert is activated. This system can be used as an support system for collision avoidance. This paper describes the outline of the system and flight test result. Two prototype systems were installed on two helicopters. The third system was installed on a ground vehicle. Flight tests were performed using these three systems.
Technical Paper

Summary of Vertical Drop Tests of YS-11 Transport Fuselage Sections

Structures and Materials Research Center of the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) conducted vertical drop tests of fuselage sections of a NAMC YS-11 A-200 transport airplane. This test program is a part of research activities in NAL on the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft. In addition a cooperative research related to this test program has been carried out by NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.(KHI). The main objectives of this program are to develop optimal numerical models for crash simulation of aircraft fuselage and to obtain background data by drop tests of full-scale fuselage sections under a controlled impact condition. Two sections of the fuselage structure with seats and passenger dummies were tested at different drop velocity to a rigid impact surface(concrete). Finite element models of the test articles for simulation of vertical drop tests were developed using a nonlinear dynamic analysis code, LS-DYNA3D.
Technical Paper


Motorcycle engines are operated at an extremely broad range of revolutions, from 1000 min-1 to 10000 min-1 or more. Ideally, the natural frequency of each part should never match the engine excitation frequency at any point over that entire range of revolution speeds, but practically, there are times when resonance cannot be avoided because the range is so broad, and therefore the vibration amplitude at resonance must be kept low. For this reason, it is important to grasp not only the resonance frequency but also the vibration amplitude at that point. This may be achieved by two methods, measurement and analysis. The direct measurement of vibration is generally difficult because the motorcycle muffler system has a complex shape and in addition it gets very high temperature when the engine is operating. For this reason, with the aim of being able to predict muffler vibration at the design stage, we carried out a vibration test and FEM (finite element method) analysis.
Technical Paper

Research on the Performance of a Waterjet Propulsor for Personal Watercrafts

A waterjet propulsor has come to be used more popularly for high speed watercrafts such as personal watercrafts. The most difficult problem for designing the waterjet system is that a tradeoff is required to properly determine the best parameters for the waterjet pump and subsequently the best overall propulsion system. This paper presents the design method and performance improvement of the waterjet propulsor used for personal watercrafts. The authors have clarified the performance of the individual component in the waterjet propulsor and improved the component efficiency empirically, and established the method to estimate the thrust and power characteristics of the propulsor on board from the component test results and other design parameters, which enables the optimization of the waterjet system.
Technical Paper

Refill Friction Spot Joining for Aerospace Application

In the modern aircraft manufacturing, the cost reduction, the manufacturing time reduction, and the weight saving of aircraft are strongly demanded. The Refill Friction Spot Joining [1,2](FSJ, in other words FSSW, Friction Stir Spot Welding), which is one of innovative solid-state joining methodologies based on the Friction Stir Welding[3], is a promising technology that can replace rivets and fasteners. This technology is expected to offer cost reduction and weight saving for the aircraft manufacturing. In this study, to make stronger and reliable joints, the shoulder-plunging process of Refill FSJ was employed. The weldability of the Alodine or Chromic Acid Anodize coated materials along with a faying-surface sealant was investigated. The joint properties, such as tensile shear strengths and corrosion resistance, were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Vibration Fatigue Life for Motorcycle Exhaust Systems

In this study, the technology that can predict fatigue life for motorcycle exhaust systems is developed. To predict the fatigue life, analyzing the engine vibration, modeling the vibration characteristics of exhaust systems and evaluating the fatigue damage of welded joints are considered essential. This paper shows an integrated numerical simulation and evaluation method. Furthermore, it is also shown with the result of a component vibration test of the muffler assembly to validate the technology. The results indicate a good correlation between the numerical simulation and the test.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Transmission Loss for Motorcycle Muffler

This paper describes the predicted results of acoustic transmission loss (T.L.) for a motorcycle muffler. First, the T.L. of a prototype muffler with one expansion chamber was obtained by measuring sound levels at the inlet and outlet ports of the muffler by speaker test. T.L. was then calculated by using a three-dimensional Finite-Element Method (FEM) for acoustic fields in the muffler. There was good coincidence between the calculated T.L. and experimentally observed data. Second, T.L. of the prototype muffler while attached to a motorcycle engine was measured. On this step, however, a similarly calculated T.L. using FEM to consider the effect of exhaust gas temperature in the muffler showed differences from the measured one. It was estimated that muffler body vibration sounds may affect the result. A dynamic analysis of the structure was carried out using FEM to obtain the eigen modes of the muffler body.
Technical Paper

Limit Cycle in the Longitudinal Motion of the USB STOL ASKA - Control System Functional Mockup and Actual Aircraft

The Japanese Quiet Short Take Off and Landing experimental aircraft named ASKA was developed and flight tested during 1977 till 1989. The control system hard and software were examined by the functional mock-up with using the actual hardware. The small longitudinal limit cycle was observed in the closed loop test when the Pitch Control Wheel Steering software was on in the mock-up testing. In this paper, first, the method to analyze and to expect the limit cycle based on the describing function was shown. The limit cycle was induced due to the nonlinearities in the automatic control mechanism. The nonlinearities in the hardware were examined to make the model to simulate the system on the computer. The method was shown effective to predict the limit cycle in the mock-up. Second, with using the flight measured dynamics, the limit cycle was concluded as on border line between existing and not, which coincides with the actual flight result.
Technical Paper

Inlet Unstart Influence on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Next Generation Supersonic Transport (SST)

The impact of inlet unstart phenomena on supersonic transport (SST) was investigated by wind tunnel testing. Inlet unstart condition was simulated by controlling the captured mass flow by the inlet. Unsteady pressures on the lower surface of wing and unsteady forces of the wind tunnel model were measured. Unsteady pressure measurement was carried out to detect shock wave motion. Unsteady force measurement by using both internal balance and accelerometers was to estimate axial/angular acceleration of airframe when inlet unstart was occurred. The pressure measurement data revealed that shock location fluctuated with dominant frequency although the controlled mass flow was steady. And it was analytically shown that the dominant frequency is corresponding to the first order frequency of organ pipe resonance.
Technical Paper

Increasing of Seizure Durability of Shift Fork Using Surface Treatment

In line with the increase in the output of motorcycle engines, there has been an increase in incidents of the seizure between shift fork and gear because of the increased thrust force. We designed a test method that uses actual shift forks to simulate actual sliding conditions, then used that test method to evaluate the feature of the shift fork sliding and the different shift fork surface treatments. The shift fork slid against the gear not as surface contact but as tilted contact. We selected the candidates from the view that the surface treatment of the shift fork contact surface to give it higher seizure resistance when in tilted contact is required. We evaluated chromium nitride thin film, diamond-like carbon thin film, molybdenum sprayed coating, and sulphonitriding, and molybdenum sprayed coating exhibited the highest seizure resistance. The conformability plays a significant role in the sliding between the shift fork and the gear.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Wear Resistance of Cam Shaft and Rocker Arm at 4-Cycle Engines

The rocker arm has a function to lead the cam shaft rotation to the valve operation. There are cases when damages are caused due to abnormal wear at the sliding part, causing certain problems. Authors classified the wear phenomenon, and realized a systematic analysis on the possible cause of the damage. As a result, it was revealed that the damage was of two types, and to prevent the hard wear, it is effective to apply shot peening before plating. The prototype rocker arm was test under various lubricating conditions, thus actually confirming that the occurrence of wear was largely reduced.
Technical Paper

Improved Briles Rivet Forming Using High-Speed Force Feedback and Improved Die Geometry

Electroimpact and Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) have produced a new riveting process for the forming of Briles type rivets in Boeing 777 and 777X fuselage assemblies. The Briles rivet is typically used for fuselage assembly and is unique in that it has a self-sealing head. Unlike conventional headed rivets such as the NAS1079, this fastener does not require aircraft sealant under the head to be fluid tight. This unique fastener makes for a difficult fastening process due to the fact that interference must be maintained between the hole and fastener shank, as well as along the sides of the fastener head. Common issues with the formed fasteners include gapping under the fastener head and along the shank of the fastener. Electroimpact has employed a host of different technologies to combat these issues with Briles fastening. First, Electroimpact’s patented “Air Gap” system allows the machine to confirm that the head of the rivet is fully seated in the countersink prior to forming.
Technical Paper

Effects of Port Injection Specifications on Emission Behavior of THC and Engine Maximum Power

In this paper, it is also elucidated that the influence of the downstream injection, which caused different fuel behavior in contrast with upstream injection, on the THC after warm-up and at the maximum power, as well as its mechanism. The mechanism is clarified by use of the intake port visualization system. First, at each injection position, the effect of injection timing on THC emission after warm-up was evaluated. In the downstream injection, THC emission increases during the injection timing, in which the fuel spray directly flows in-cylinder during the intake process (hereinafter defined as the intake valve opening injection timing), and the amount of THC emission is reduced at the other injection timing (hereinafter defined as the intake valve closing injection timing). Based on the results of visualizing the intake port, injected fuel phase near the intake valve is spray in the downstream injection.
Technical Paper

Effects of Port Injection Specifications on Air-Fuel Ratio and Emission Behavior under Transient Operation

When an electronically controlled fuel injection device is located at downstream in intake port (hereinafter defined as downstream injection, on the other hand, upstream injection is defined as that fuel injection device is located at upstream in intake port), the possibilities of an improvement in the engine startability, increase in maximum power, and decrease in THC during warming have been reported in visualizations of the intake port. In addition, the amount of wall adhesion decreased with downstream injection in previous paper [1]. In this paper, we examine the influence on the amount of wall adhesion due to the difference in injection position on fuel transport in the intake port during transient operation and the obtained exhaust A/F and the amount of exhaust gas emitted during transient operation are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stability Analysis of High-Speed Traction Drive CVT for Aircraft Power Generation

The traction-drive integrated drive generator (T-IDG®) has been developed since 1999 to replace current hydrostatic transmission drive generators mounted on Japanese military aircraft. The T-IDG® consists of a generator and a half-toroidal traction-drive continuously variable transmission (CVT), which maintains a constant output speed of 24000 rpm, that is, a 400 Hz AC power supply. To cope with recent trends of more electric aircraft (MEA) and the need for weight reduction, a high-speed traction-drive CVT is advantageous over other transmissions. The torque on the half-toroidal variator is transmitted through multiple power rollers. The equal load sharing among power rollers is typically controlled by a mechanical hydraulic feedback system, whose stability is one of the main issues for the high-speed traction-drive CVT. Previous studies have shown that insufficient damping and stiffness of the mechanical hydraulic feedback system cause self-induced vibration.
Technical Paper

Development of the Isolation Chamber

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is constructing the Isolation Chamber in Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC) by March 1996. The Isolation Chamber will be used to basic training for Japanese astronauts, development for crew training technology and research for manned space technology. This paper describes the outline of the Isolation Chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of a Riding Simulator for Motorcycles

We developed the motorcycles based on RIDEOLOGY (Ride + Ideology) concept. In the past, the “Ride” was studied by a sensory evaluation with actual driving. However, the recent progress in numerical analysis, there have been developed driving simulators. It allows more quantitative measurement in a sensory evaluation. Therefore, we also developed a riding simulator specialized for motorcycles. In order to develop such riding simulator, there are some technical challenges for motorcycles. First, we need to reproduce roll motion height of motorcycles. Compared to four-wheeled vehicles, motorcycles have a higher center of rotation. Second, we need to reproduce vehicle motion control by rider’s changing body position. A rider controls vehicle’s lean by shifting his center of gravity. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a measurement system of rider’s body position. Third, we need to improve senses of speed and reality.