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Technical Paper

The Feasibility Study of a Design Concept of Electric Motorcycle

2015-09-01
2015-01-1775
As for automobile, the mass production period of Electric Vehicle(EV) has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for EV-Motorcycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies' releases. The design and evaluation methodologies are not yet established or standardized so far. This paper provides the practical and the experimental examples. To study the feasibility of EV-MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers' parts environments, and evaluated them by the practical view of the MC usage. The developed EV-MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc internal combustion engine(ICE)-MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use.
Technical Paper

The Development of One Liter Motorcycle Engines

1989-09-01
891800
A new 0.9-liter 4-valve-per-cylinder liquid cooled engine was developed for 1984 model motorcycles. This new engine was optimized from the standpoint of performance, durability, and weight efficiency. Semi-Flat slide carburetors, high compression ratio, relatively short stroke and large valves were employed. This engine was upgraded every other year with changes in displacement. Induction system, exhaust system, and valve train. This paper describes, from the viewpoint of the designer, the evolution of the 4-valve liquid-cooled engine from the 1984 to 1988 models. In that evolutionary process we employed: (1) semi-down draft carburetors with smooth air ducts, (2) a computer-aided intake and exhaust port design and manufacturing system. (3) individual rocker arms. (4) a cool air intake system. (5) lightweight pistons. (6) angle -controlled tightening of connecting rod bolts.
Technical Paper

Temperature and Humidity Control System of JEM

1996-07-01
961368
A Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) assembly an essential system in order to provide comfortable environment for crew members in Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Development of an engineering model (EM) and a proto model (PM) of JEM THC assembly started from March 1991 and completed on March 1995 successfully. In this development phase, it is called JEM EM phase, qualification test of THC was conducted to verify the THC design. This paper presents JEM THC design and an outline of the assembly model development.
Technical Paper

TRACE CONTAMINANTS CONTROL ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE JAPANESE CLOSED ECOLOGY EXPERIMENT FACILITIES

1994-06-01
941446
In the closed environments such as manned space station, it is necessary to remove contaminant gas to keep a suitable environment. Removal of gaseous contaminants generated from crew, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (abbreviated as CEEF). CEEF consist of three modules for habitat, animal and plant, the supporting facilities for each module and a plant cultivation facility. CEEF are scheduled to be constructed from 1994 in Aomori Prefecture, northern part of Japan. For designing Trace Contaminant Control Assembly (TCCA) for CEEF, the following six (6) trace contaminants have been selected as major contaminant gas in CEEF; Ammonia (NH3) Methane (CH4) Ethylene (C2H4) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Ethylene is well-known as an aggressive contaminant to plant growth and maturity.
Technical Paper

Refill Friction Spot Joining for Aerospace Application

2015-09-15
2015-01-2614
In the modern aircraft manufacturing, the cost reduction, the manufacturing time reduction, and the weight saving of aircraft are strongly demanded. The Refill Friction Spot Joining [1,2](FSJ, in other words FSSW, Friction Stir Spot Welding), which is one of innovative solid-state joining methodologies based on the Friction Stir Welding[3], is a promising technology that can replace rivets and fasteners. This technology is expected to offer cost reduction and weight saving for the aircraft manufacturing. In this study, to make stronger and reliable joints, the shoulder-plunging process of Refill FSJ was employed. The weldability of the Alodine or Chromic Acid Anodize coated materials along with a faying-surface sealant was investigated. The joint properties, such as tensile shear strengths and corrosion resistance, were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Vibration Fatigue Life for Motorcycle Exhaust Systems

2011-11-08
2011-32-0642
In this study, the technology that can predict fatigue life for motorcycle exhaust systems is developed. To predict the fatigue life, analyzing the engine vibration, modeling the vibration characteristics of exhaust systems and evaluating the fatigue damage of welded joints are considered essential. This paper shows an integrated numerical simulation and evaluation method. Furthermore, it is also shown with the result of a component vibration test of the muffler assembly to validate the technology. The results indicate a good correlation between the numerical simulation and the test.
Technical Paper

Increasing of Seizure Durability of Shift Fork Using Surface Treatment

2005-10-12
2005-32-0020
In line with the increase in the output of motorcycle engines, there has been an increase in incidents of the seizure between shift fork and gear because of the increased thrust force. We designed a test method that uses actual shift forks to simulate actual sliding conditions, then used that test method to evaluate the feature of the shift fork sliding and the different shift fork surface treatments. The shift fork slid against the gear not as surface contact but as tilted contact. We selected the candidates from the view that the surface treatment of the shift fork contact surface to give it higher seizure resistance when in tilted contact is required. We evaluated chromium nitride thin film, diamond-like carbon thin film, molybdenum sprayed coating, and sulphonitriding, and molybdenum sprayed coating exhibited the highest seizure resistance. The conformability plays a significant role in the sliding between the shift fork and the gear.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Wear Resistance of Cam Shaft and Rocker Arm at 4-Cycle Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3296
The rocker arm has a function to lead the cam shaft rotation to the valve operation. There are cases when damages are caused due to abnormal wear at the sliding part, causing certain problems. Authors classified the wear phenomenon, and realized a systematic analysis on the possible cause of the damage. As a result, it was revealed that the damage was of two types, and to prevent the hard wear, it is effective to apply shot peening before plating. The prototype rocker arm was test under various lubricating conditions, thus actually confirming that the occurrence of wear was largely reduced.
Technical Paper

Improved Briles Rivet Forming Using High-Speed Force Feedback and Improved Die Geometry

2019-03-19
2019-01-1377
Electroimpact and Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) have produced a new riveting process for the forming of Briles type rivets in Boeing 777 and 777X fuselage assemblies. The Briles rivet is typically used for fuselage assembly and is unique in that it has a self-sealing head. Unlike conventional headed rivets such as the NAS1079, this fastener does not require aircraft sealant under the head to be fluid tight. This unique fastener makes for a difficult fastening process due to the fact that interference must be maintained between the hole and fastener shank, as well as along the sides of the fastener head. Common issues with the formed fasteners include gapping under the fastener head and along the shank of the fastener. Electroimpact has employed a host of different technologies to combat these issues with Briles fastening. First, Electroimpact’s patented “Air Gap” system allows the machine to confirm that the head of the rivet is fully seated in the countersink prior to forming.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Thermal Fatigue Strength by the Addition of Calcium to Hypoeutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

2018-10-30
2018-32-0027
Several elements affect the structure of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum alloys [1, 2, 3, 4]. Among them, calcium has been investigated to a lesser extent compared to the typically used sodium and strontium. In order to enhance the thermal fatigue strength of a small engine, the morphology of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys is controlled by the addition of calcium. In addition, the castability and mechanical properties are investigated. Hence, samples containing different amounts of calcium are prepared at different cooling rates during solidification. The results revealed that, with the increase in the calcium amount and the cooling rate, eutectic silicon exhibits a fine morphology in cross-sectional images. Particularly, with the addition of at least 62 mass ppm of calcium in a specific range of cooling rates, refined eutectic silicon is obtained.
Technical Paper

Development of a Magnesium Swing Arm for Motorcycles

2004-09-27
2004-32-0048
In order to improve the fuel efficiency and the operating performance of motorcycles, there is a need to reduce their weight. Magnesium, which is the lightest of the various metals currently being used and has a high specific strength, has the potential to satisfy that need. We conducted a study to clarify the weldability and strength characteristics of, and the most suitable surface treatment for, extruded magnesium alloys and rolled magnesium alloys. Based on the stress analysis by the finite element method, we designed a magnesium swing arm and produced the prototype swing arm by pressing hot rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy plates and welding them. The prototype is about 10% lighter and has higher torsional rigidity than a conventional aluminum swing arm.
Technical Paper

Development of a Drill Bit for CFRP/Aluminum-Alloy Stack: To Improve Flexibility, Economical Efficiency and Work Environment

2013-09-17
2013-01-2227
In the expansion of composite material application, it is one of the most important subjects in assembly of aircraft structure how drilling of composite/metal stack should be processed in an efficient way. This paper will show the result of development of a drill bit for CFRP/Aluminum-alloy stack by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) and Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal (SEH). In order to improve workability and economic performance, the drill bit which enables drilling CFRP/Al-alloy stack: at 1 shot; from both directions; without air blow and coolant (just usual vacuuming); was required. A best mix drill bit which has smooth multi angles edge and pointed finishing edge was produced as a result of some trials. Developed drill bit achieved required performance and contributed to large cost reduction, labor hour saving, production speed increase and work environment improvement.
Technical Paper

Development of Spraying Technology for Improving the Wear Resistance of Engine Cylinder Bores

2003-09-15
2003-32-0066
In response to design requirements for lower weight and higher output, the motorcycle engine cylinder block has evolved from a cast cylinder block to an aluminum alloy cylinder block whose bore walls are surface-treated for wear-resistance. Hard-chromium plating, nickel-compound plating, and the like are in wide use as the wear-resistance surface treatment method, but spray technology has recently been attracting attention because of less impact on the environment, superior initial running-in performance and good oil retention. We have been applying a unique spraying method called wire explosion spraying to those models with a special need for wear-resistance surface. In this report we describe our wire explosion spray technology. With the aim of improving the bond strength of the sprayed coat, we studied the effects of the collided particles' form on bond strength in the wire explosion spraying conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Fatigue Durability Evaluation Technology for Motorcycle Frame

2015-11-17
2015-32-0811
In the development of a motorcycle frame, the balance between high performance and reliability and a short development period are important. In this study, a fatigue durability evaluation technique for a motorcycle frame was developed to enable highly accurate development within a short period of time. Furthermore, we developed a shaking table excitation system as a means to supplement the road test.
Technical Paper

Development of Alternative Fuel Content Estimation Method and Apparatus

2013-10-15
2013-32-9156
Environmental and energy independence concerns have stimulated the development of an apparatus for alternative fuel. It estimates the ethanol content in the fuel in order to perform a reliable combustion. One means for measuring the ratio of ethanol present in the fuel tank is to provide a fuel composition sensor. However, such a fuel composition sensor increases the number of parts and causes the cost issues in motorcycles. We used an oxygen sensor disposed to the exhaust pipe to estimate the ethanol content without increasing the parts and costs. The common method of the estimation is the oxygen feed-back in stoichiometric air fuel ratio condition. Unfortunately, two-wheel vehicles are often operated in rich conditions and have less chance of stoichiometric condition. In this study, we used a one-liter four-cylinder motorcycle, and have developed a practical method to estimate the ethanol content even in the not-stoichiometric condition.
Technical Paper

Desorbing Test on Trace Contaminants for the Japanese Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

1995-07-01
951582
In the closed environments, removal of trace contaminants generated from persons, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level. We conducted the fundamental tests in order to confirm design of TCCA (Trace Contaminants Control Assembly) for Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), and obtained the following results; 1) The palladium-on-alumina catalyst is suitable for CO, CH4, C2H4 conversion at temperature lower than 400°C. 2) The alkali impregnated AC (activated charcoal) is effective for NO2, SO2 removal and prevents catalyst poisoning from SO2. 3) The active-desorbing conducted by hot air blow-throw an AC is effective for C2H5OH, CH2Cl2 desorbing. We discuss the fundamental test and design conditions for TCCA.
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