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Technical Paper

Verification and Validation of a Safety-Critical Steer-By-Wire System Using DO-178B

The application of DO-178B for the verification and validation of the safety-critical aspects of a steer-by-wire sub-system of a vehicle by using a spiral development model is discussed. The project was performed within a capstone design course at Kettering University. Issues including lessons learned regarding requirements, specifications, testing, verification, and validation activities as required by DO-178B are summarized.
Technical Paper

Using Digital Image Correlation to Measure Dynamics of Rolling Tires

Vehicles are in contact with the road surface through tires, and the interaction at the tire-road interface is usually the major source of vibrations that is experienced by the passengers in the vehicle. Thus, it is critical to measure the vibrational characteristics of the tires in order to improve the safety and comfort of the passengers and also to make the vehicle quieter. The measurement results can also be used to validate numerical models. In this paper, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a non-contact technique is used to measure the dynamics of a racing tire in static and rolling conditions. The Kettering University FSAE car is placed on the dynamometer machine for this experiment. A pair of high-speed cameras is used to capture high-resolution images of the tire in a close-up view. The images are processed using DIC to obtain strain and displacement of the sidewall of the tire during rolling. The experiment is performed for various testing speeds.
Technical Paper

Use of a Designed Experiment to Determine the Optimal Method to Join Injection-Molded Parts to Pultrusions

A coupler has been developed to prevent windshield wiper systems from being damaged by excessive loads that can occur when the normal wiping pattern is restricted. The coupler is composed of a pultruded composite rod with injection-molded plastic spherical joints (a.k.a. sockets) attached at either end. The sockets are used to attach the coupler to the crank and rocker of the windshield wiper linkage. Because the loads exerted on a coupler vary in magnitude and direction during a wiping cycle, the joint between the sockets and the pultruded composite rod must be robust. The paradigm for attaching sockets to steel couplers (i.e. over-molding the sockets around holes stamped into the ends of traditional steel couplers) was applied to the pultruded rods, tested, and found to produce inadequate joint strength. This paper details the methodology that was employed to produce and optimize an acceptable means to attach the injection-molded sockets to the pultruded rods.
Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Design Considerations for a Longitudinally Mounted Powertrain

The transmission mount in a powertrain mounting system is often a primary path for noise. This is especially the case when the transmission is mounted directly to the body without the benefit of a structural frame or isolation between the bracket and body. Since most transmissions generate frequencies above 150Hz, the transmission mount system becomes a likely noise path for this and higher frequencies. A combination of very stiff transmission bracket and very soft rubber mount between the transmission bracket and the transmission would help this problem. In this paper the development an optimally designed transmission mount for a longitudinally mounted powertrain is presented. The development procedure of such a design considers the transmission mount as part of the total system.
Technical Paper

Traction and Clutch Effects on the Natural Frequency and Vibration Stability of Limited Slip Differential Axles

The torsional natural frequencies of axles equipped with limited slip differential clutches depend on whether or not the tires and clutches are slipping since the effective inertia at each end of the axle is different for slipping and non-slipping conditions. Limited slip axle vibrations are typically analyzed for one tire slipping and the other not since that is the case for which the limited slip clutches are used. Vibrations often arise, however, during normal turning when both drive tires have good traction.
Technical Paper

Towards A Definition of A Test Methodology for Rollover Resistance and Rollover Performance

A variety of test methodologies currently exist to assess the propensity of a vehicle to roll laterally, the vehicle performance during a rollover event, and the associated risk of injury to the occupant. There are indications as to which tests are appropriate when attempting to replicate rollover events observed in the field. Due to the complexity of a rollover, test repeatability is a concern as well as cost, and field relevance. Since revisions to governmental rollover regulations are currently being considered, an assessment of currently available rollover test methodologies would provide a context to compare the different experimental designs. Additionally, the design of injury prevention strategies such as side air curtains, 4-point belts, etc. will also require the establishment of repeatable, robust, and economical test methods.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Whirling Speeds of Pultruded Composite Shafts

The objective of this paper is to determine the whirling bending critical speeds of pultruded composite shafts in simply supported boundary conditions. Theoretical studies have been carried using Patran to determine the natural frequencies and the mode shapes for the Jeffcot and Kikuchi rigid rotor models. A tabletop experimental apparatus has been fabricated and the bending critical speeds have been measured for various span lengths between the supports. The results of this study may be useful in identifying whether pultruded composite shafts can be employed as drive shafts in automotive or other industries.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Retained Fluid and Humidity on the Evacuation of Critical Vehicle Systems

In automotive assembly facilities worldwide, many critical vehicle systems such as brakes, power steering, radiator, and air conditioning require the appropriate fluid to function. In order to insure that these critical vehicle systems receive the correct amount of properly treated fluid, automotive manufacturers employ a method called Evacuation and Fill. Due to their closed-loop design, many critical vehicle systems must be first exposed to vacuum prior to being flooded with fluid. Only after the evacuation and fill process is complete will the critical vehicle system be able to perform as specified. It has long been thought, but never proven, that humidity and entrenched fluid were major hindrances to the Evacuation and Fill process. Consequently, Ford Motor Company Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development, Sandalwood Enterprises, Kettering University, and Dominion Tool & Die conducted a detailed project on this subject.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Multiple Spark Discharge Ignition System and Spark Plug Electrode Configuration on Cold Starting of a Dedicated E85 Fueled Vehicle

This paper describes the experiments conducted to determine the effect of high energy multiple spark discharge (MSD) ignition systems and spark plug electrode design, on the cold start performance of a vehicle which was converted for dedicated operation on E85 (a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel. Tests were conducted using three different ignition configurations; original equipment manufacturer (OEM) ignition and spark plugs, high energy multiple spark discharge (MSD) ignition with OEM, J-type spark plugs, and high energy MSD ignition with surface gap electrode spark plugs. The high energy MSD ignition with OEM spark plugs showed a significant improvement in cold start performance over the OEM ignition. The addition of the surface gap spark plugs caused a decrease in cold start performance. Despite this, the surface gap spark plugs produced higher ending coolant temperature than the other configurations.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Multiple Spark Discharge on the Cold-Startability of an E85 Fueled Vehicle

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the effect of multiple spark discharge ignition systems and spark plug electrode design on cold start performance of a dedicated E85 fueled vehicle. Tests were conducted using three different ignition configurations: OEM ignition and spark plugs, multiple spark discharge ignition with OEM spark plugs, and multiple spark discharge ignition with large gap circular electrode spark plugs. The multiple spark discharge ignition with OEM spark plugs showed a significant improvement in cold start performance over the OEM ignition, but the addition of the circular electrode spark plugs caused a decrease in cold start performance. The circular ground spark plugs did produce a higher ending coolant temperature than either of the other configurations.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Clean Snowmobile for the 2004 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

Kettering University's Clean Snowmobile Challenge student design team has developed a new robust and innovative snowmobile for the 2004 competition. Switching from the previous years four-stroke automotive engine, Kettering University has utilized a modified snowmobile in-line four cylinder, four-stroke, fuel- injected engine. This engine has been installed into a 2003 Yamaha RX-1 snowmobile chassis. Exhaust emissions have been minimized through the use of a customized catalytic converter and an electronically controlled closed-loop fuel injection system. A newly designed and tuned exhaust as well as several chassis treatments have aided in minimizing noise emissions.
Technical Paper

The Determination of Air/Fuel Ratio Differences Between Cylinders in a Production Engine Using Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensors

Cylinder air/fuel ratio distribution is an important factor affecting the economy, power, vibration, and emissions of an internal combustion engine. Currently, production automobiles utilize an exhaust gas sensor located in the main exhaust stream in order to regulate air/fuel mixtures. By measuring the oxygen content of the exhaust gas for each cylinder independently, the degree of air/fuel variation between cylinders can be determined. This information can be used to determine the mixture quality of specific cylinders. Knowing these variances can lead to design changes in the intake and exhaust manifolds as well as better control of fuel metering which will improve the output of the engine. This study was carried out using a 1991 3.8L Buick V-6 engine with customized exhaust manifolds utilizing exhaust gas oxygen sensors for each cylinder in addition to the sensor located in the main combined exhaust gas stream. Production level, ZrO2 sensors were used for this experimental study.
Journal Article

Task and Message Scheduling for a FlexCAN-based Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drivetrain Functional Unit

A Task and Message Schedule for a FlexCAN-based Hybrid-Electric vehicle (HEV) functional unit is described. The resulting schedule is a component of an incremental message and task scheduling approach based on a time-driven message schedule and priority-driven task schedule. The HEV functional unit involves the combined control and monitoring functions of an internal combustion engine working in parallel with a permanent magnet synchronous motor. The control algorithm for the synchronous motor has been simulated using VHDL-AMS. The global message system is supported by FlexCAN and the task scheduler system is supported by a priority based OS (e.g., OSEK or AUTOSAR).
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing. EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis and Design Modification of Seat Rail Structures in Various Operating Conditions

This paper is based on, and in continuation of the work previously published in ASEE NCS Conference held in Grand Rapids, MI [1]. Automotive seating rail structures are one of the key components in the automotive industry because they carry the entire weight of passenger and they hold the structure for seating foams and other assembled key components such as side airbag and seatbelt systems. The entire seating is supported firmly and attached to the bottom bodywork of the vehicle through the linkage assembly called the seat rails. Seat rails are adjustable in their longitudinal motion which plays an important role in giving the passengers enough leg room to make them feel comfortable. Therefore, seat rails under the various operating conditions, should be able to withstand the weight of the passenger along with the other assembled parts as mentioned above. Also, functional requirements such as crash safety is very important to avoid or to minimize injuries to the occupants.
Technical Paper

State Space Formulation by Bond Graph Models for Vehicle System Dynamics

Modeling and simulation of dynamic systems is not always a simple task. In this paper, the mathematical model of a 4 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) ride model is presented using a bond-graph technique with state energy variables. We believe that for the physical model as described in this research, the use of a bond-graph approach is the only feasible solution. Any attempt to use classical methods such as Lagrange equations or Newton's second law, will create tremendous difficulties in the transformation of a set of second order linear differential equations to a set of first order differential equations without violating the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of the differential equations, the only approach is the elimination of the damping of the tires, which makes the model unrealistic. The bond-graph model is transformed to a mathematical model. Matlab is used for writing a computer script that solves the engineering problem.
Technical Paper

Source Noise Isolation during Electric Vehicle Pass-By Noise Testing Using Multiple Coherence

Due to the nearly silent operation of an electric motor, it is difficult for pedestrians to detect an approaching electric vehicle. To address this safety concern, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 141, “Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”. This FMVSS 141 standard requires the measurement of electric vehicle noise according to certain test protocols; however, performing these tests can be difficult since inconsistent results can occur in the presence of transient background noise. Methods to isolate background noise during static sound measurements have already been established, though these methods are not directly applicable to a pass-by noise test where neither the background noise nor the vehicle itself as it travels past the microphone produce stationary sound signals.
Technical Paper

Robust Sensor Fused Object Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks for Autonomous Vehicles

Environmental perception is considered an essential module for autonomous driving and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). Recently, deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the State-of-the-Art with many different architectures in various object detection problems. However, performances of existing CNNs have been dropping when detecting small objects at a large distance. To deploy any environmental perception system in real world applications, it is important that the system achieves high accuracy regardless of the size of the object, distance, and weather conditions. In this paper, a robust sensor fused object detection system is proposed by utilizing the advantages of both vision and automotive radar sensors. The proposed system consists of three major components: 1) the Coordinate Conversion module, 2) Multi level-Sensor Fusion Detection (MSFD) system, and 3) Temporal Correlation filtering module.
Journal Article

Preliminary Study of Perceived Vibration Quality for Human Hands

A large body of knowledge exists regarding the effects of vibration on human beings; however, the emphasis is generally on the damaging effects of vibration. Very little information has been published regarding the effect of vibration on perceived consumer product quality. The perceived loudness of a product is quantified using the Fletcher-Munson equal loudness curves, but the equivalent curves for perceived vibration amplitude as a function of amplitude and frequency are not readily available. This “vibration quality” information would be valuable in the design and evaluation of many consumer products, including automobiles. Vibration information is used in the automobile design process where targets for steering wheel, seat track, and pedal vibration are common. For this purpose, the vibration information is considered proprietary and is generally applicable to a narrow frequency range. In this investigation, work paralleling the original Fletcher-Munson study is presented.
Technical Paper

Power Systems Infrastructure of Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Competition Go Kart

This paper documents the electrical infrastructure design of a Hybrid Go Kart competition vehicle which includes a dual Fuel Cell power system, Ultra Capacitors for energy storage, and a dual AC induction motor capable of independent drive. The Kart was built primarily to compete in the 2009 Formula Zero international event. This paper emphasized the vehicle model and control strategy as a result of three (3) graduate student research projects. The vehicle was fabricated and tested but did not participate in the race competition since the race organization folded. The vehicle model was developed in Simulink to determine whether the fuel cell and ultra-capacitor combination will be sufficient for peak transient power requirement of 14 kW. The vehicle’s functional description and performance specifications are documented including the integration of the fuel cell power modules, energy storage system, power converters, and AC motor and motor controllers.