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Technical Paper

Verification and Validation of a Safety-Critical Steer-By-Wire System Using DO-178B

2006-04-03
2006-01-1447
The application of DO-178B for the verification and validation of the safety-critical aspects of a steer-by-wire sub-system of a vehicle by using a spiral development model is discussed. The project was performed within a capstone design course at Kettering University. Issues including lessons learned regarding requirements, specifications, testing, verification, and validation activities as required by DO-178B are summarized.
Technical Paper

Using Digital Image Correlation to Measure Dynamics of Rolling Tires

2018-04-03
2018-01-1217
Vehicles are in contact with the road surface through tires, and the interaction at the tire-road interface is usually the major source of vibrations that is experienced by the passengers in the vehicle. Thus, it is critical to measure the vibrational characteristics of the tires in order to improve the safety and comfort of the passengers and also to make the vehicle quieter. The measurement results can also be used to validate numerical models. In this paper, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a non-contact technique is used to measure the dynamics of a racing tire in static and rolling conditions. The Kettering University FSAE car is placed on the dynamometer machine for this experiment. A pair of high-speed cameras is used to capture high-resolution images of the tire in a close-up view. The images are processed using DIC to obtain strain and displacement of the sidewall of the tire during rolling. The experiment is performed for various testing speeds.
Technical Paper

Traction and Clutch Effects on the Natural Frequency and Vibration Stability of Limited Slip Differential Axles

2007-05-15
2007-01-2295
The torsional natural frequencies of axles equipped with limited slip differential clutches depend on whether or not the tires and clutches are slipping since the effective inertia at each end of the axle is different for slipping and non-slipping conditions. Limited slip axle vibrations are typically analyzed for one tire slipping and the other not since that is the case for which the limited slip clutches are used. Vibrations often arise, however, during normal turning when both drive tires have good traction.
Technical Paper

State Space Formulation by Bond Graph Models for Vehicle System Dynamics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0430
Modeling and simulation of dynamic systems is not always a simple task. In this paper, the mathematical model of a 4 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) ride model is presented using a bond-graph technique with state energy variables. We believe that for the physical model as described in this research, the use of a bond-graph approach is the only feasible solution. Any attempt to use classical methods such as Lagrange equations or Newton's second law, will create tremendous difficulties in the transformation of a set of second order linear differential equations to a set of first order differential equations without violating the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of the differential equations, the only approach is the elimination of the damping of the tires, which makes the model unrealistic. The bond-graph model is transformed to a mathematical model. Matlab is used for writing a computer script that solves the engineering problem.
Technical Paper

Physical Validation Testing of a Smart Tire Prototype for Estimation of Tire Forces

2018-04-03
2018-01-1117
The safety of ground vehicles is a matter of critical importance. Vehicle safety is enhanced with the use of control systems that mitigate the effect of unachievable demands from the driver, especially demands for tire forces that cannot be developed. This paper presents the results of a smart tire prototyping and validation study, which is an investigation of a smart tire system that can be used as part of these mitigation efforts. The smart tire can monitor itself using in-tire sensors and provide information regarding its own tire forces and moments, which can be transmitted to a vehicle control system for improved safety. The smart tire is designed to estimate the three orthogonal tire forces and the tire aligning moment at least once per wheel revolution during all modes of vehicle operation, with high accuracy. The prototype includes two in-tire piezoelectric deformation sensors and a rotary encoder.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Development of a Slip Model for a Basic Rigid Ring Ride Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1116
With the recent advances in rapid modeling and rapid prototyping, accurate simulation models for tires are very desirable. Selection of a tire slip model depends on the required frequency range and nonlinearity associated with the dynamics of the vehicle. This paper presents a brief overview of three major slip concepts including “Stationary slip”, “Physical transient slip”, and “Pragmatic transient slip”; tire models use these slip concepts to incorporate tire slip behavior. The review illustrates that there can be no single accurate slip model which could be ideally used for all modes of vehicle dynamics simulations. For this study, a rigid ring based semi-analytical tire model for intermediate frequency (up to 100 Hz) is used.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0175
For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.
Technical Paper

External Flow Analysis of a Truck for Drag Reduction

2000-12-04
2000-01-3500
Aerodynamics of trucks and other high sided vehicles is of significant interest in reducing road side accidents due to wind loading and in improving fuel economy. Recognizing the limitations of conventional wind tunnel testing, considerable efforts have been invested in the last decade to study vehicle aerodynamics computationally. In this paper, a three-dimensional near field flow analysis has been performed for axial and cross wind loading to understand the airflow characteristics surrounding a truck-like bluff body. Results provide associated drag for the truck geometry including the exterior rearview mirror. Modifying truck geometry can reduce drag, improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

External Flow Analysis Over a Car to Study The Influence of Different Body Profiles Using CFD

2001-10-16
2001-01-3085
A vehicle’s performance and fuel economy plays an important role in obtaining a larger market share in the segment. This can be best achieved by optimizing the aerodynamics of the vehicle. Aerodynamics can be improved by altering the bodylines on a vehicle. Its drag coefficient can be maintained at a minimum value by properly designing various component profiles. The stability of a vehicle and Passenger comfort are affected by wind noise that is related to the aerodynamics of a vehicle. To study the effects of the above-mentioned parameters, the vehicle is tested inside a wind tunnel. In this paper, the authors study the body profile for different vehicles and analyze them using Computational Fluid Dynamics software - FLUENT. To study the influence of different body profiles on drag coefficient, 3 different vehicle segments are considered.
Technical Paper

Effect of Chassis Design Factors (CDF) on the Ride Quality Using a Seven Degree of Freedom Vehicle Model

2004-03-08
2004-01-1555
The kinematics and kinetics of a seven degree of freedom vehicle ride model with independent front and rear suspension are developed. Lagrange's equation is used to obtain the mathematical model of the vehicle. The equations of motion are transformed to state space equations in Linear Time Invariant (LTI) form. The effect of Chassis Design Factors (CDF) such as stabilizer bars, stiffness', Dynamic Index in Pitch (DIP) and mass ratio on the vehicle ride quality are investigated. The ride quality of the 3 dimensional vehicle that includes bounce, pitch, roll and unsprung masses motion is demonstrated in time domain response. The vehicle is considered as a Multi-Input-Multi-Output System (MIMO) subjected to deterministic ground inputs. Outputs of interest for the ride quality investigation are vertical and angular displacement and vertical accelerations. Numerical computer simulation analysis is performed using MATLAB® software.
Technical Paper

Cervical Range of Motion Data in Children

2006-04-03
2006-01-1140
The “Range-of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Children” study is a collaboration between Kettering University and McLaren Regional Medical Center in Flint, Michigan to quantify and establish benchmarks of “normal” range of motion (ROM) in children. The results will be analyzed to determine mean and standard deviation of degrees of rotation and used to improve the occupant protection in motor vehicles, sports equipment and benefits of physical therapy. The data will be invaluable in the development of computational models to analyze processes involving children in motion.
Book

Carriages Without Horses

1993-08-01
In September 1893, little could 23-year-old mechanic J. Frank Duryea dream of the changes that would be brought about by his creation -- a frail gasoline buggy that made its debut on the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts. Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea, two brothers from rural Illinois, were the founders of the American automobile industry. The Duryea Motor Wagon company was the first company organized in the United States for the manufacture of automobiles. The attention-getting, older brother Charles demanded - and to date has received - the principal credit for these pioneering accomplishments. A bitter family feud between the brothers, which was even carried on by their families after their deaths, further muddied the question about the individual brothers' contributions. However, in Carriages Without Horses: J. Frank Duryea and the Birth of the American Automobile Industry, historian and author Richard P. Scharchburg proves that the quiet, self-effacing younger brother J.
Technical Paper

Blind-Spot Detection and Avoidance Utilizing In-Vehicle Haptic Feedback Force Feedback

2011-04-12
2011-01-0556
Steer-by-wire is a system where there are no mechanical connections between the steering wheel and the tires. With the inception of electric and hybrid cars, steer-by-wire is becoming more common. A steer-by-wire car opens many opportunities for additional feedback on the steering wheel. Providing haptic feedback through the steering wheel will add additional depth and capabilities to make the driving experience safer. In this paper we investigated the effects of force feedback on the steering wheel in order to detect and/or avoid blind spot collisions. Two types of force feedback are examined using a driving simulator: a rumble and a counter steering force. A rumble on the steering wheel can avoid blind-spot accidents by providing feedback to drivers about vehicles in their blind spots. Providing counter steering force feedback can help in the reduction in blind-spot accidents. The results show that adding counter steering force feedback did reduce blind-spot related collisions.
Technical Paper

Application of Bond Graph Technique and Computer Simulation to the Design of Passenger Car Steering System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0617
Vehicle Dynamics play an important role in responsiveness of a vehicle. The performance of a vehicle depends on its ride and handling characteristics [1]. Handling is a measure of the directional response of a vehicle and one of the important characteristics from the vehicle dynamics point of view. The directional response of a vehicle depends on the dynamics of the steering system. A good steering control provides an accurate feedback about how the vehicle reacts to the road. In this paper, the powerful techniques of Bond graphs and state equations [2] are used to design and analyze the dynamics of a manual rack and pinion steering system. The author obtains the transfer function between the Angle of rotation of front tire and the Angle of rotation of steering wheel. The overall steering ratio of the bond graph modeled steering system is compared with the overall ratio of a similar vehicle to validate the model.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Frontal Impact of a Formula SAE Vehicle

2006-12-05
2006-01-3627
The objective of this study was to determine risk of injury to the driver during a frontal impact in a Formula SAE vehicle. Formula SAE is a collegiate student design competition where every year universities worldwide build and compete with open-wheel formula-style race cars. Formula SAE 2006 rules stipulate the use of an impact attenuator to absorb energy in the event of a frontal impact. These rules mandated an average deceleration not to exceed 20-g from a speed of 7.0 m/s (23 ft/s), but do not specify a specific time or pulse shape of the deceleration. The pulse shapes tested in this study included an early high-g, constant-g, and late high-g pulse. The tests were performed using the deceleration sled at the Kettering University Crash Safety Center. Using industry standard practices, this study examined the driver's risk of injury with regard to neck and femur loads, head and chest accelerations, as well as kinematic analysis using high speed video.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a 4-DOF Vehicle Model Using Bond Graph and Lagrangian Technique

2002-03-04
2002-01-0809
Bond graph modeling is a powerful technique to study the complex interactions occurring between various components in a system. A few investigations were carried out to study vehicle dynamics using Bondgraphs, but are limited to 2 degree of freedom systems [1,2&3]. In this work, a 4-DOF-vehicle model was developed using bond graphs. A frequency response analysis was also carried out to study the natural frequencies. This model was later validated using Lagrangian principles. The results correlated well for a typical passenger car using the manufacturer supplied information available in the public domain.
Technical Paper

An Architecture for a Safety-Critical Steer-by-Wire System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0714
A hardware and software architecture suitable for a safety-critical steer-by-wire systems is presented. The architecture supports three major failure modes and features several safety protocols and mechanisms. Failures due to component failures, software errors, and human errors are handled by the architecture and safety protocols. A test implementation using replicated communication channels, controllers, sensors, and actuators has been performed. The test implementation uses the CAN protocol, Motorola S12 microcontrollers, and Microchip MCP250XX components with a steering wheel and road wheel simulator. The focus of the paper is on the application level, using system engineering principles which incorporate a holistic approach to achieve safety at various levels.
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