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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

1985-11-11
852199
The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Valve Rocker Arm Material for Investment Casting

1985-11-11
852203
In order to develop the valve rocker arm material for the new type engine, we investigated various materials whose chemical compositions were selected using 30% chromium cast iron, which had shown good results in screening evaluation tests, as the basis. High chromium cast irons are well known for their abrasive wear resistance, but it has been very difficult to apply them for use as rocker arm material because their machinability is very poor, and because it is difficult for them to have a regular microstructure. In this paper, both the manufacturing method for the rocker arm which decreases the disadvantages that high chromium cast iron have and the rocker arm material best suited for this method are described.
Technical Paper

Using the Modal Response of Window Vibrations to Validate SEA Wind Noise Models

2017-06-05
2017-01-1807
The SEA model of wind noise requires the quantification of both the acoustic as well as the turbulent flow contributions to the exterior pressure. The acoustic pressure is difficult to measure because it is usually much lower in amplitude than the turbulent pressure. However, the coupling of the acoustic pressure to the surface vibration is usually much stronger than the turbulent pressure, especially in the acoustic coincidence frequency range. The coupling is determined by the spatial matching between the pressure and the vibration which can be described by the wavenumber spectra. This paper uses measured vibration modes of a vehicle window to determine the coupling to both acoustic and turbulent pressure fields and compares these to the results from an SEA model. The interior acoustic intensity radiating from the window during road tests is also used to validate the results.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Journal Article

Thermal Flow Analysis of Hybrid Transaxle Surface Using Newly-Developed Heat Flux Measurement Method

2015-04-14
2015-01-1652
This research developed a new measurement technology for thermal analysis of the heat radiation from a hybrid transaxle case surface to the air and improved the heat radiation performance. This heat flux measurement technology provides the method to measure heat flux without wiring of sensors. The method does not have effects of wiring on the temperature field and the flow field unlike the conventional methods. Therefore, multipoint measurement of heat flux on the case surface was enabled, and the distribution of heat flux was quantified. To measure heat flux, thermal resistances made of plastic plates were attached to the case surface and the infrared thermography was used for the temperature measurement. The preliminary examination was performed to confirm the accuracy of the thermal evaluation through heat flux measurement. The oil in the transaxle was heated and the amount of heat radiation from the case surface was measured.
Technical Paper

The World's First Transverse 8-Speed Automatic Transmission

2013-04-08
2013-01-1274
We have developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission for transverse FWD/4WD vehicles. The aim of this new automatic transmission was to achieve world-class fuel economy while offering both smooth gear shift and sporty shift feeling suitable for luxury cars. This has been accomplished using wide spread gear ratio, outstanding low drag components and highly efficient hydraulic control system. In addition, we have achieved the compactness similar to current 6-speed automatic transmission by adopting new gear train and compact clutch layout. In this paper, the detail of this automatic transmission is introduced.
Technical Paper

The Development of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet For Automotive Use

1989-02-01
890708
Vibration Damping Steel Sheet (VDSS) for automotive use, which has a three layer structure of steel/viscoelastic resin/steel, has been studied. For automotive body panels, VDSS is required to have not only high vibration damping capability but also other properties such as bonding strength, formability, weldability and durability. In this research, the effect of resin layer on these properties was studied. It is found that VDSS which satisfies these properties can be made from thermosetting resin involving metal particles.
Technical Paper

Super Olefin Polymer for Material Consolidation of Automotive Interior Plastic Parts

1996-02-01
960296
A new automotive interior component material, TSOP-5 has been developed by refining the technology utilized to develop TSOP-1, the high modulus and high flow material for bumper covers. This new interior component material has excellent molding capability (MI=30dg/min.) yet still maintains high impact resistance which enables the material to be used in areas such as the dash board as well as trim covers requiring to meet the FMVSS 214, the new side impact regulation or the FMVSS 201, the new soft upper trim regulation.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation Mechanism -Influence of Fuel Components and Gasoline Detergents-

1997-05-01
971722
The combustion chamber deposit (CCD) forming tendency of gasoline components and detergents were investigated with laboratory tests ad engine dynamometer tests. In the dynamometer tests, the driving conditions under which fuels and detergents influence CCD formation were specified, and the effects of different gasoline components and detergent blends on CCD formation were examined. In the laboratory tests, the CCD forming process was investigated thoroughly [10]. The CCD forming tendency of aromatic compounds in gasoline were dependent not only on physical properties such as molecular weight, but also chemical structure (number or position of the alkyl substituents of aromatic molecules). As for oxygenates, engine dynamometer tests with MTBE blended gasoline yielded less CCD than the test without MTBE. The CCD forming tendency of detergents correlated with the thermal decompositon tendency of the detergent package and the concentration of the main agents.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Flow Rate Change in Injector for Methanol Fueled S.I. Engine

1995-02-01
950071
The change of the fuel flow rate in an injector with mileage accumulation causes poor drivability and exhaust emission deterioration in Otto-type methanol fueled vehicles with a multi-point fuel injection system. This is one of the serious problems which needs to be solved for the practical use of methanol fueled vehicles. The investigation results reveal that the wear of contact surfaces between a valve needle and a valve body increases the resistance force for valve needle movement and causes the change of dynamic fuel flow rate in the injector. The effects of several countermeasures to solve this problem are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Study of Formable High Strength Steel Sheets for Automotive Panels

1992-02-01
920247
Weight reduction of automobiles is one of the most highlighted subjects in automobile industry from the energy saving and clean environment points of view. A typical approach for the purpose is to use high strength steel sheets as well as optimizing designs and using low density materials. It is not, however, easy to apply high strength steel sheets to automotive panels because of their strict requirement for the shape-fixability although a high dent resistance is also required. Besides the use of bake hardening steels, two different high strength steel sheets, which are a continuously annealed extra-low carbon titanium-added IF steel and a low carbon TRIP steel which contains about six volume% of austenite, were assessed for the application to automotive panels in combination with a tension-controled press-forming technique and showed as good shape-fixability as a conventional box-annealed aluminum-killed DDQ steel sheet when high blank-holding-forces were applied.
Technical Paper

Study of Cooling Drag Reduction Method by Controlling Cooling Flow

2014-04-01
2014-01-0679
As the demand for improved fuel economy increases and new CO2 regulations have been issued, aerodynamic drag reduction has become more critical. One of the important factors to consider is cooling drag. One way to reduce cooling drag is to decrease the air flow volume through the front grille, but this has an undesirable impact on cooling performance as well as component heat load in the under-hood area. For this reason, cooling drag reduction methods while keeping reliability, cooling performance and component heat management were investigated in this study. At first, air flow volume reduction at high speed was studied, where aerodynamic drag has the greatest influence. For vehicles sold in the USA, cooling specification tends to be determined based on low speed, while towing or driving up mountain roads, and therefore, there may be extra cooling capacity under high speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Strengthening of Surface Induction Hardened Parts for Automotive Shafts Subject to Torsional Load

1994-03-01
940786
The purpose of this study is twofold: to clarify the factors governing the torsional strength of surface induction hardened parts and, to present a method for strengthening automotive shaft parts for their weight reduction. The torsional strength against Mode III fracture can be expresssed by a new indicator, “equivalent hardness” defined as an average hardness weighted with the radius squared. If the equivalent hardness is continuously increased, the fracture mode change from Mode III to Mode I. The torsional strength against Mode I fracture is governed by grain boundary strength. Accordingly, the key-points in increasing the torsional strength of surface induction hardened parts are to raise the equivalent hardness and increase the grain boundary strength of the steel. By application of this method, the torsional strength of steel can be raised by 50%, which, in turn, enables about a 25% weight reduction for shaft parts.
Technical Paper

Stability of a One Box Type Vehicle in a Cross-Wind-An Analysis of Transient Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

1988-10-01
881878
One-box type vehicles are especially liable to a loss of stability when entering a region of cross-wind. The reasons for this instability were investigated using scale models and by means of a mathematical simulation. Results indicated that yawing moment attains a peak at a precise position of the vehicle relative to the cross-wind. Visualization of the air flow and measurement of the pressure distributions established the cause of the phenomenon. Furthermore a study was conducted into the effects of body shape on stability and the efficacy of various modifications was assessed.
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Swirl Lower-Chamber for High Power Turbocharged Diesel Engines

1985-02-01
850523
This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities in the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9PS as compared to that of conventional engines.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology of Surface Material for Interior Trims

2000-03-06
2000-01-0741
Two-layered surface materials composed of a thermoplastic olefin elastomer (TPO) skin and a cross-linked polypropylene (PP)foam are increasingly replacing the conventional PVC skin/PVC foam for interior trims. In the past, recycled material obtained by melt-blending TPO skin and PP foam could not be re-used for TPO skin because of its appearance. A new recycling technology using the reaction biaxial extruder with a reaction agent can decompose the network structure of PP foam. As a result, PP foam is dispersed into TPO uniformly and the recycled material has properties and an appearance similar to virgin TPO. These new properties may allow the application of the recycled material as a surface material.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Vehicle Interior Noise Reduction

1982-02-01
820963
In order to reduce the interior noise of a vehicle with a four-cylinder engine, investigations were made using finite element and vector methods, acoustic intensity testing and holography technique. The investigation resulted in inclination of the engine mounting, design changes to the front suspension member, a shock absorber engine mounting, structural modifications to reduce body panel vibration and a new engine mounting to insulate high frequency engine vibration.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Press Formability of Aluminum Alloy Sheets for Automotive Panels

1993-03-01
930705
Aluminum alloy sheets are used for automotive body-panels, but their small Young's modulus results in inferior shape-fixability than conventionally-applied steel sheets with similar strengths. Smaller radius of curvature, indicating better shape-fixability, is found at the center of a panel press-formed with higher blank holder force (BHF). Higher force can be applied for press-forming of alloy sheets with larger strain-hardening exponent (n value) induced by an increased addition of Mg. Recently-developed 5000 series alloy sheets containing 5.5 pct Mg and 0.3 pct Cu have an elongation over 33 pct at an ultimate tensile strength of 270 MPa and can be press-formed with better shape-fixability.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of the Relation between Flame Structure and Turbulence in HCCI Combustion by Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0061
The structure of HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion flames was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the two-dimensional gas temperature distribution using phosphor thermometry. It was found from the relation between a turbulent Reynolds number and Karlovitz number that, when compared with the flame propagation in an S.I. engine, HCCI combustion has a wider flame structure with respect to the turbulence scale. As a result of our experimentation for the influence of low temperature reaction (LTR) using two types of fuel, it was also confirmed that different types of fuel produce different histories of flame kernel structure.
Technical Paper

Properties of a Newly Developed Organic Composite Coated Steel Sheet for Automotive Use

1992-02-01
920172
The newly developed sheet steel lightly coated with an organic composite is as follows. Zn-Ni alloy plated sheet steel with a coating weight of 30 g/m2 and average Ni concentration of 11.5 ∼12.0 % is chromated through electrolysis. The coating weight of chromate film is 50 ∼90 mg/m2 in Cr. Furthermore, emulsified olefin-acrylic acid copolymer resin mixed with colloidal silica of particle size 7 ∼8 nm applied to a thickness of 1.0 ∼1.8 μm. Olefin-acrylic acid copolymer resin and colloidal silica are mixed at the rate of 100 and 30 (parts by weight). It maintains excellent corrosion resistance even after forming, C-ED paint corrosion resistance and paint adhesion. Furthermore, it has excellent perforation resistance. The product has excellent weldability and is well suited to continuous forming, too.
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