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Technical Paper

Simulation of Fuel/Air Mixture Formation for Heavy Duty Liquid Phase LPG Injection (LPLI) Engines

Submodels are developed for injection, evaporation and wall impingement of a liquid LPG spray. The injection model determines the quality of fuel as two-phase choke flow at the nozzle exit. Wind tunnel experiments show the spray penetration more sensitive to ambient flow velocity than to injection pressure. Most evaporation occurs during choking, while heat transfer from surrounding air has a negligible effect on downstream droplet sizes. Three dimensional simulation shows that the bathtub cavity is better than the dog-dish cavity for stable flame propagation in lean-burn conditions. The injection timing during the IVC period has a negligible effect, while injection during an intake stroke enhances fuel/air mixing to result in more homogeneous cylinder charge.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

Gas Flows Through the Inter-Ring Crevice and Their Influence on UHC Emissions

Influence of the inter-ring crevice, the volume between the top and second piston rings, on unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emission was experimentally and numerically investigated. The ultimate goal of this study was to estimate the level of UHC emission induced by the blow-up of inter-ring mixture, i.e., unburned gases trapped in the inter-ring crevice. In the experiments, the inter-ring mixture was extracted to the crankcase during the late period of expansion and the early period of exhaust stroke through the engraved grooves on the lower part of cylinder wall. Extraction of the mixture resulted in the significant reductions of UHC emission in proportion to the increments of blowby flow rate, without any losses in efficiency and power. This experimental study has confirmed the importance of inter-ring crevice on UHC emission in an SI engine and established a relationship between the inter-ring mixture and UHC emission.
Technical Paper

Engine Controller for the Hydrocarbon Reduction During Cold Start in SI Engine

In order to reduce hydrocarbon emission in gasoline engine, especially during warming-up period, it is necessary to estimate the fuel and fuel product flow rate in the emission gas. The intake airflow rate should also be estimated. A strategy was proposed to estimate air fuel ratio in a spark ignition engine. The mass of air in the cylinder was determined by filling-emptying method, and the fuel in the intake manifold and cylinder was estimated by the “wall-wetting” effect calculation. The use of graphical dynamic system control software is becoming more popular as automotive engineers strive to reduce the time to develop new control systems. The rapid prototype engine controller has been developed by using MATLAB, SIMULINK, REAL TIME WORKSHOP, xPC Target, and WATCOM C++. The sensor data from the engine will be transferred to computer, and the fuel delivery will be calculated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Stratified EGR on the Performance of a Liquid Phase LPG Injection Engine

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and lean burn utilize the diluents into the engine cylinder to control combustion leading to enhanced fuel economy and reduced emissions. However, the occurrence of excessive cyclic variation with high diluent rates, brings about an undesirable combustion instability within the engine cylinder resulting in the deterioration of both engine performance and emissions. Proper stratification of mixture and diluents could improve the combustion stability under high diluent environment. EGR stratification within the cylinder was made by adopting a fast-response solenoid valve in the midst of EGR line and controlling its timing and duty. With EGR in both homogeneous mode and stratified mode, in-cylinder pressure and emissions were measured. The thermodynamic heat release analysis showed that the burning duration was decreased in case of stratified EGR. It was found that the stratification of EGR hardly affected the emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections in a HSDI Diesel Engine Equipped with Common Rail Injection System

Diesel fuel injection system is the most important part of the direct-injection diesel engine and, in recent years, it has become one of the critical technologies for emission control with the help of electronically controlled fuel injection. Common rail injection system has great flexibility in injection timing, pressure and multi-injections. Many studies and applications have reported the advantages of using common rail system to meet the strict emission regulation and to improve engine performance for diesel engines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies on engine performance and emissions. The study was carried out on a single cylinder optical direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. Spray and combustion evolutions were visualized through a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Response TiAl Turbine Wheel on Engine Performance under Transient Conditions

Transient tests in a 2.0 liter in-line 4 cylinder downsizing gasoline direct injection engine were conducted under various transient conditions in order to investigate effects of lower rotational inertia of titanium aluminide alloy (TiAl) turbine wheel on engine and turbocharger performances. As a representative result, fast boost pressure build up was achieved in case of TiAl turbocharger compared to Inconel turbocharger. This result was mainly due to lower rotational inertia of TiAl turbine wheel. Engine torque build up response was also improved with TiAl turbocharger even though engine torque response gap between both turbochargers was slightly reduced due to retarded combustion phase. In addition, with advanced ignition timing, fuel consumption became less than that of Inconel turbocharger with similar engine torque response.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Throttling on Engine Performance and Residual Gas in an SI Engine

Combustion in engines can be controlled by the amount of residual gas, which has high temperature and heat capacity compared with fresh charge. Residual gas also acts like a dilution gas during combustion period. Accordingly, combustion duration increases, while the peak combustion temperature and nitrogen oxides (NOx) decreases. Amount of residual gas is affected by pressure difference between exhaust and intake, valve timing and engine speed. The main objective of this work is to identify the effects of exhaust throttle, valve timing and load conditions on residual gas fraction and engine performance. The intake valve open timing was varied freely under fixed exhaust valve close (EVC) timing. Additionally, exhaust throttle has been installed in the exhaust manifold to build up the exhaust back-pressure allowing extra amount of exhaust gases to be admitted into the cylinder during the valve overlap duration.