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Technical Paper

Shearographic Nondestructive Testing for High-Pressure Composite Tubes

In response to the need for lightweight design in industries, composite materials are increasingly used to replace traditional metal tubes. However, subsurface defects such as voids, delaminations, and microcracks are still remaining common issues in composite pressure tubes. This paper introduces an application of Digital Shearography method in the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of high-pressure composite tubes. A new prototype high-pressure composite tube with a working pressure of 1000 psi range is tested using the digital Shearography method. To detect the sub-surface defects, a reference Shearographic phase map is created at 0 psi state, after that the composite tube is pressured using an oil pump, then the second Shearographic phase map is created at the pressured state. By subtracting the two shearographic phase maps created in different pressure state, the sub-surface defects can be identified clearly. The Shearographic NDT result is then compared with CT scan result.
Technical Paper

Numerical Design of a Low Mass Differential Housing

Lawrence Technological University's 1998 SAE Formula car needed a high performance differential assembly. The performance requirements of a competitive SAE Formula car differential are as follows: Torque sensing capabilities Perfect reliability High strength Low mass Ability to withstand inertia and shock loading Small package Leak proof housing Ability to support numerous components With these requirements in mind an existing differential was selected with the capability for torque sensing. This differential lacked the desired low mass, support, internal drive splines, and proper gearing protection. The differential was re-engineered to remedy the deficiencies. The internal gearing from the selected differential was used in an improved casing. This casing and it's position in the car, reduce the number of side-specific parts required as well as improving the performance. The new design significantly reduces the size and mass of the assembly.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Improvement through the “NOVA” Process

The experimental methods focused on utilizing the newly developed NOVA induction heating and hardening manufacturing process as an adapted method to produce high performance engine valve springs. A detailed testing plan was used to evaluate the expected and theorized possibility for fatigue life enhancement. An industry standard statistical analysis method and tools were employed to objectively substantiate the findings. Fatigue cycle testing using NOVA induction-hardened racing valve springs made of ultra-high tensile material were compared to data for springs with traditional heat treatment and those with standard processing. The results were displayed using Wöhler and modified Haigh fatigue life diagrams. The final analysis suggests that NOVA processed springs have a seemingly slight, yet significant benefit in fatigue life of 5 - 7% over springs processed through a competing method.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Pressure Wheel Design on Heat Dissipation for a Laser Robotic End of Arm Tooling

The initiative of this paper is focused on improving the heat dissipation from the pressure wheel of a laser welding assembly in order to achieve a longer period of use. The work examines the effects of different geometrical designs on the thermal performance of pressure wheel assembly during a period of cooling time. Three disc designs were manufactured for testing: Design 1 – a plain wheel, Design 2 – a pierced wheel, and Design 3 – a wheel with ventilating vanes. All of the wheels were made of carbon steel. The transient thermal reaction were compared. The experimental results indicate that the ventilated wheel cools down faster with the convection in the ventilated channels, while the solid plain wheel continues to possess higher temperatures. A comparison among the three different designs indicates that the Design 3 has the best cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature on Weld Strength in Chrome Moly Space Frames

Chromium Molybdenum Steel (AISI 4130), commonly referred to as “Chrome Moly”, is one of the most popular materials used in the construction of tubular space frames and chassis components for racing applications. Its high strength, light weight and comparably low material cost make the reasons for its popularity quite obvious. However, there is one problem that is commonly overlooked: maintaining the strength component of Chrome Moly in areas exposed to high levels of heat followed by rapid cooling during welding. This paper seeks to better understand the affects of cooling due to welding on the strength of Chrome Moly tubing.
Technical Paper

Design of an Aluminum Differential for a Racing Style Car

The 1999 Lawrence Technological University (LTU) drive train consists of a sprocket and chain assembly that delivers the torque, developed by a 600cc Honda F3 engine, to the rear wheels. The torque is transferred through a limited-slip, torque sensing differential unit comprised of a gear set in a student designed housing. The 1999 differential is a second-generation aluminum housing. The idea of using aluminum was first attempted with the 1998 team who successfully completed and used aluminum despite much complexity and a few design flaws. Therefore, in the LTU Formula Team's continuing effort to optimize the design, a new less complex design was conceived to house the gear set. This innovative design reduces the number of housing components from three in 1998, to two in 1999.
Technical Paper

Correlations Among Monotonic Tensile Properties and Simple Approximations that Predict Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties of Steels

In this study, a new nonlinear correlation between Brinell hardness and ultimate tensile strength is proposed. The correlation factor in this case is higher than that found in the current literature. The ultimate tensile strength is replaced by an equivalent hardness expression in the Modified Universal Slopes Method. This change results in fatigue parameters that are predicted using hardness, true fracture ductility, and modulus of elasticity. This new fatigue life prediction approach is compared with the original Modified Universal Slopes method and experimental data in literature. This method is valid for steel with hardness that ranges from 150HB to 660HB. The results show that this method provides better approximations of the strain-life curves when compared with the Modified Universal Slopes and experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method in Large-Scale I-Beams Bending Test

AASHTO I-Beam is a standard structural concrete part for bridge sections. The flexural performance of an AASHTO I-Beam is critical for bridge design. This paper presents an application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method in full-scale AASHTO I-Beam flexural performance study. A full-scale AASHTO I-Beam pre-stressed with steel strands is tested by three-point bending method. The full-scale AASHTO I-Beam is first loaded from 0 kips to 100 kips and is then released from 100 kips to 0 kips. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to measure the deflection and strain distribution during the testing. From the DIC results, the micro-crack generation progress during the loading progress can be observed clearly from the measured DIC strain map. To enable such a large-scale DIC measurement, the used DIC setup is optimized in terms of the optical imaging system and speckle pattern size.
Technical Paper

An Adjustable Aluminum Differential

The 2000 Formula SAE Team at Lawrence Technological University (LTU) has designed a chain driven, three-piece aluminum differential unique from past years. This innovative design introduces an adjustable chain mount replacing conventional shackles. Made completely of aluminum, this device moves the entire rear drive train. The gear set remains to be limited slip with a student designed housing. The idea of an aluminum housing with manufactured gear set is a continued project at LTU. After cutting approximately 33% from the weight of the 1999 differential, the 2000 is geared toward a simpler, and smaller design, easier assembly and lighter weight. After reading this brief overview, the idea of this paper is to provide an understanding of the reasoning behind the choices made on the LTU driveline team. FIGURE 1