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Technical Paper

The Application of Direct Body Excitation Toward Developing a Full Vehicle Objective Squeak and Rattle Metric

In order to engineer Squeak & Rattle (S&R) free vehicles it is essential to develop an objective measurement method to compare and correlate with customer satisfaction and subjective S&R assessments. Three methods for exciting S&Rs -type surfaces. Excitation methods evaluated were road tests over S&R surfaces, road simulators, and direct body excitation (DBE). The principle of DBE involves using electromagnetic shakers to induce controlled, road-measured vibration into the body, bypassing the tire patch and suspension. DBE is a promising technology for making objective measurements because it is extremely quiet (test equipment noise does not mask S&Rs), while meeting other project goals. While DBE is limited in exposing S&Rs caused by body twist and suspension noises, advantages include higher frequency energy owing to electro-dynamic shakers, continuous random excitation, lower capital cost, mobility, and safety.
Technical Paper

Squeak Studies on Material Pair Compatibility

The more noise and vibration improvements are incorporated into our vehicles, the more customers notice squeaks and rattles (S&R). Customers increasingly perceive S&R as a direct indicator of vehicle build quality and durability. The high profile nature of S&R has the automotive industry striving to develop the understanding and technology of how to improve the S&R performance in the vehicle. Squeaks and itches make up a significant amount of Squeak and Rattle complaints found in today's vehicles. Squeaks and itches are the result of stick slip behavior between two interacting surfaces. Squeak itch behavior is dependent upon a large number of parameters including but not limited to: the material itself, temperature, humidity, normal load, system compliance, part geometry, velocity, surface roughness, wear, contaminants, etc. This paper will describe the analysis of sound data and friction data and the relationship between them.
Technical Paper

Friction Induced Vibration: Brake Moan

Techniques have been developed to model friction induced vibration and these were applied to the brake moan of a vehicle. A vehicle system model and the MSC/NASTRAN solutions for geometric nonlinear and complex modes were modified by DMAP for friction input. To assess stability, a position of steady sliding equilibrium was found. Then a complex modes solution was done to find negatively damped modes. Mode shape animation of all the unstable modes showed that there was a 90° out of phase vibration. This produced a design modification on a test vehicle which stabilized the vibration and eliminated brake moan.
Technical Paper

Frequency Domain Considerations in Vehicle Design for Optimal Structural Feel

A vehicle perceived to be solid and vibration free is said to have good “structural feel”. Specification for vehicle design to achieve a good stuctural feel depends heavily on the management of resonant modes existing in the low frequency domain. These resonances include vehicle rigid body, chassis subsystem, body flexure and large component modes. A process to specify the placement of resonant modes in the low frequency domain is discussed. This process allocates blocks within the frequency domain for classes of resonant modes stated above. Segregation of these blocks of resonant modes in the frequency domain limits modal interaction, thereby minimizing sympathetic vibration. Additionally, known areas of human body sensitivity within this low frequency domain are stated. Lastly, known vibration inputs are identified. This process is cognizant of these inputs and avoids overlapping with the vehicle resonant modes to provide further insurance of minimal modal interaction.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount for Integral Body Vehicle

A typical problem in integral body vehicles is the isolation of high frequency vibration and noise. A method of attacking this problem is presented for isolation of engine noise. A mount concept which acts as a mechanical low pass filter was analyzed, designed and tested. Results in reducing engine noise in the vehicle show it to be an effective method.
Technical Paper

Creating a Biofidelic Seating Surrogate

In order to more accurately simulate the load distributions and histories experienced by automotive seats in field use, more biofidelic motion and loading devices are needed. A new test dummy was developed by Lear Corporation and First Technology Safety Systems. This dummy uses exact skeletal geometry encased in a one-piece seamless mold with contours based on ASPECT data. A prototype was constructed and tested to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept. The skeleton and contour molds were created from CAD-generated rapid prototypes. The flesh was carefully formulated to have the mechanical properties of bulk muscular tissue in a state of moderate contraction, using data from the literature. This design allows much greater accuracy in reproducing human loads than was ever possible previously. The design has applications in durability, vibration and comfort testing.
Technical Paper

Automotive Seating Foam: Subjective Dynamic Comfort Study

Many studies have been done to objectively measure car seat foam properties and correlate them to comfort performance. Typically, the vibration characteristics (namely transmissibility) of the foam cushion are measured. It has been generally accepted that low natural frequency equates to better comfort. However, no subjective studies have been done to verify that humans can feel the vibration differences that are measured. Also, the measured differences of the foam may not be detectable once the foam is built into a complete seat. Three different foam formulations utilizing MDI (methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and TDI (toluene diisocyanate) technology were evaluated for vibration characteristics. The foams were then submitted to subjective human testing and objective lab testing after being built into seats. The subjective testing was done using a typical ride and drive evaluation where people were interviewed about the comfort of the seat while driving over various road conditions.
Technical Paper

Automotive Noise and Vibration Control Practices in the New Millennium

The approaches used to develop an NVH package for a vehicle have changed dramatically over the last several years. New noise and vibration control strategies have been introduced, new materials have been developed, advanced testing techniques have been implemented, and sophisticated computer modeling has been applied. These approaches help design NVH solutions that are optimized for cost, performance, and weight. This paper explains the NVH practices available for use in designing vehicles for the new millennium.
Technical Paper

A New Dummy for Vibration Transmissibility Measurement in Improving Ride Comfort

Continuing effort in measuring human vibration response results in a new design of vibration comfort dummy. The difference between this new dummy and other mechanical dummies is that (1) it uses a soft human-tissue like lower torso so it matches compliance better than the previous ones, and (2) it utilizes the spring and damping characteristics of the compliant lower torso. The lower torso is integrated with a spring-mass load simulating the top body of human so that the integrated dummy consists of two parts. This unique design greatly improves the accuracy and stability of transmissibility measurement and provides a direct application tool in seat prototype development. The results measured with dummy are compared with that measured with 3 human subjects in different percentiles and good match is found in the first transmissibility resonance and overall vibration response.