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Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Using a Geometric Toolkit to Link Finite Element Calculations in Sheet Metal Forming Analysis

1994-03-01
940748
Sheet metal forming of automobile body panel consists of two processes performed in series: binder forming and punch forming. Due to differences in deformation characteristics of the two forming processes, their analysis methods are different. The binder wrap surface shape and formed part shape are calculated using different mathematical models and different finite element codes, e.g., WRAPFORM and PANELFORM, respectively. The output of the binder forming analysis may not be directly applicable to the subsequent punch forming analysis. Interpolation, or approximation, of the calculated binder wrap surface geometry is needed. This surface representation requirement is carried out using computer aided geometric design tools. This paper discusses the use of such a tool, SURFPLAN, to link WRAPFORM and PANELFORM calculations.
Technical Paper

The Use of Finite Element Analysis to Predict Body Build Distortion

1995-04-01
951120
Finite element methods can be used to simulate a class of variation problems induced by build distortion in the assembly process. The FEM approach was used to study two representative assembly problems: 1) Front fender mounting and resulting distortion due to various fastening sequences; and, 2) Coupe door assembly process and resulting deformation due to clamping and welding of flexible sheet metal parts. FEM is used to generate sensitivities of various process conditions. Correlation with measured Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) data is shown. The use of FEM to simulate manufacturing/assembly processes in the automotive industry is in it's infancy. As the new methods are developed this capability can be used to study the assembly process and provide guidance in designing more robust parts and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Sound Quality-Based End-of-Line Inspection System for Powered Seat Adjusters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0040
In recent years, the perceived quality of powered seat adjusters based on their sound during operation has become a primary concern for vehicle and seat manufacturers. Historical noise targets based on overall dB(A) at the occupant's ear have consistently proved inadequate as a measure of the sound quality of a seat adjuster. Significant effort has been devoted to develop alternative sound quality metrics that can truly discriminate between “good” and “bad” seat adjusters. These new metrics have been successfully applied for some years by product development engineers in test labs. However, in the assembly plant the sound quality of the seat adjuster is still assessed subjectively by an operator at the end of the assembly line. The main problem with this approach is not only the lack of consistency and repeatability across large samples of seat tracks, but also the fact that the only feedback provided from the end-of-line to the product development team is of subjective nature.
Technical Paper

The Design of Passenger Car Cast Aluminum Wheels

1983-02-01
830016
Permanent mold cast aluminum wheels have been widely used as original equipment on passenger cars for a number of years. Testing and field experience together with manufacturing and plant processing experience has resulted in the development of a number of recommended design practices which are outlined in this paper. Methods used to test that design requirements have been met will be presented. Basic wheel designs, rigid and flexible, will be discussed together with the currently used mounting face configurations. Detail design features such as rim contour, nut boss, valve hole, hub pilot, mounting face and window openings will be reviewed. Future design and manufacturing trends will be discussed.
Technical Paper

The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

2001-03-05
2001-01-1132
The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Primary Power Supply System

1974-02-01
741208
This paper describes the major electrical characteristics of the automotive power supply system. It is a compilation of existing data and new information that will be helpful to both the electrical component and electronic assembly designers. Previously available battery/alternator data is organized to be useful to the designer. New dynamic information on battery impedance is displayed along with “cogging” transients, regulation limits and load dump characteristics.
Technical Paper

Robust Weld Verification for Chassis Structure

1996-08-01
961776
The development of a major structural welded assembly is a lengthy and expensive project. The design and the development must generate a product that meets requirements and customer expectations. Product engineers and test engineers developing structural weldments are the target audience for this paper. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Design Of Experiments approach that was developed which helps provide qualitative information on a structural weldment's sensitivity to MIG weld variation.
Technical Paper

Robust Process Design for a Four-Bar Decklid Hinge System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0878
Auto components with large manufacturing variation may cause vehicle quality problems after they are assembled. The impact of this variation depends on the assembly process used. If the assembly process is sensitive to the component variation, the impact may be more significant. In this case, an assembly process with lower sensitivity to component variation will solve the problem. This paper presents an example where the component variation largely impacted the quality of the car, and a more robust assembly process solved the problem.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Verification of the Structural Stress Method for Fatigue Life Prediction of Resistance Spot Welds Under Variable Amplitude Loads

2000-10-03
2000-01-2727
The work presented here builds on the practical and effective spot weld fatigue life prediction method, the structural stress method (SSM), that was developed at Stanford University. Constant amplitude loading tests for various spot weld joint configurations have been conducted and the SSM has been shown to accurately predict fatigue life. In this paper refinements to the structural stress approach are first presented, including a variable amplitude fatigue life prediction method based on the SSM and Palmgren-Miner's rule. A test matrix was designed to study the fatigue behavior of spot welds under tensile shear loading conditions. Constant amplitude tests under different R-ratios were performed first to obtain the necessary material properties. Variable amplitude tests were then performed for specimens containing single and multiple welds.
Technical Paper

Reducing Background Noise Levels in Plant SQ Test Booths

2007-05-15
2007-01-2383
As customer awareness of product sound grows, the need exists to ensure that product sound quality is maintained in the manufacturing process. To this end in-process controls that employ a variety of traditional acoustical and alternate sound quality metrics are utilized, usually partly or wholly housed in a test enclosure. Often times these test cells are required to attenuate the background noise in the manufacturing facility so that the device under test can be accurately assessed. While design guidelines exist the mere size and cost of such booths make an iterative build and test approach costly in terms of materials as well as engineering and testing time. In order to expedite the design process and minimize the number of confirmation prototypes, SEA can be utilized to predict the transmission loss based upon material selection and booth construction techniques.
Technical Paper

OneStep™ Liftgate

1998-02-23
981008
Lear Corporation has developed a new OneStep™ Liftgate trim module. The panel consists of all mechanical components and a trim cover assembled into one module. This structural liftgate uses the trim substrate and a “beam” as the common attachment point for all liftgate hardware. The assembly includes all of the liftgate components mounted to the back of the interior trim panel.
Technical Paper

Nylon RIM Development for Automotive Body Panels

1985-02-01
850157
The performance and production requirements for future passenger vehicles has increased the efforts to replace metal body panels with plastic materials. This has been accomplished, to a large extent on some production vehicles that have been introduced recently. Unfortunately, these plastic body applications have necessitated special off-line handling or low temperature paint processing. However, the advantages of RIM nylon, offer the potential for uniquely new plastic body designs, that can be processed through existing assembly plants, much like the steel panels they are intended to replace. The intent of this paper is to discuss the rationale for future plastic body panel material selection and related nylon RIM development efforts.
Technical Paper

Multivariate Robust Design

2005-04-11
2005-01-1213
In a complex system, large numbers of design variables and responses are involved in performance analysis. Relationships between design variables and individual responses can be complex, and the outcomes are often competing. In addition, noise from manufacturing processes, environment, and customer misusage causes variation in performance. The proposed method utilizes the two-step optimization process from robust design and performs the optimization on multiple responses using Hotelling's T2 statistic. The application of the T2-statistic allows the use of univariate tools in multiple objective problems. Furthermore, the decomposition of T20 into a location component, T2M and a dispersion component, T2D substitutes a complex multivariate optimization process with the simpler two-step procedure. Finally, using information from the experiment, a multivariate process capability estimates for the design can be made prior to hardware fabrication.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management in the Auto Manufacturing Industry - A Report from President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development Auto Team

1995-10-01
951871
An assessment of automobile painting at General Motor's Lake Orion, Michigan, USA assembly facility from a life cycle perspective was conducted. The Orion Facility produces the new Oldsmobile Aurora and Buick Riviera models. Improvements in on-site pollution prevention, energy conservation and regulatory barriers to technology innovation were identified. The environmental implications of auto body substrate material choice were analyzed. A life cycle inventory framework was developed for paint suppliers and other parts of the auto painting life cycle. An Alternative Regulatory System was proposed for the entire U.S. auto industry that will, if implemented, facilitate the integration of environmental management into core business strategies and planning.
Technical Paper

Lead-time Reduction in Stamping CAE and Die Face Development using Massively Parallel Processing in Forming Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-1678
Since 1997, General Motors Body Manufacturing Engineering - Die Engineering Services (BME-DES) has been working jointly with our software vendor to develop and implement a parallel version of stamping simulation software for mass production analysis applications. The evolution of this technology and the insight gained through the implementation of DMP/MPP technology as well as performance benchmarks are discussed in this publication.
Technical Paper

Keynote Address

1985-02-25
850580
Just-In-Time processing is changing the way the automotive industry operates. This paper explains Just-In-Time systems, how they are being applied at General Motors, and how the U.S. auto industry is applying them. The paper is based on three main premises: 1) the design of the product and the design of the process must be integrated, 2) the construction process is critical, and 3) the first day of operation of the process must be the first day efforts are made to improve it.
Technical Paper

Influence of Laser Welding Parameters on Formability and Robustness of Blank Manufacturing: An Application to a Body Side Frame

1995-02-01
950922
A design of experiments is used to study the effect of laser weld parameters on formability of welded blanks for two different material combinations of cold rolled (bare) steel to cold rolled steel and cold rolled steel to hot dipped galvanized steel. Critical weld parameters influencing the formability of welded blanks are identified and the optimum weld set-up condition is obtained based on formability performance and consistency of formability for laser welded blanks. The results are applied to an automotive body side frame. The robustness of welded blank production is also assessed and the final welded set-up condition for the body side frame is obtained based on both the formability of welded blanks and the robustness of welded blank production. The body side frame is successfully made from the welded blanks with this final weld set-up condition.
Technical Paper

Glass Drop Design for Automobile Windows - Design of Glass Contour, Shape, Drop Motion, and Motion Guidance Systems

1995-04-01
951110
This paper presents a new computerized approach for designing the automobile window glass contour, the glass drop motion, and the regulator systems. The three-dimensional geometrical relationship of the glass contour, the drop path, and its guidance system have been studied. Methods for barrel and helical drops are presented for optimizing the glass profile and drop path trajectories. Criteria for perfecting the glass contour are developed for shaping the profile of the vehicle clay model. Methods for correcting the glass contour and shape are presented. Examples are provided to illustrate how to improve the design. This approach integrates the development works of glass contour, drop motion and regulator systems. Through this design approach the window glass can fit and move perfectly in the door assembly.
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