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Technical Paper

Fluid Systems Servicing and Leak Check for the International Space Station

There is an assortment of hardware designed to work together to provide fluid servicing, seal leak checking and other plumbing-type services on the International Space Station (ISS). The Fluid Systems Servicer (FSS) is designed to drain, purge, fill, and recirculate fluids for on-orbit start-up, scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. The FSS will utilize space vacuum for purging operations on-orbit via the Vacuum Access Jumpers (VAJ), thus providing vacuum back-filling and static leak check capability with minimal power consumption. The FSS services Internal Thermal Control Systems (ITCS) and Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS) System hardware in the pressurized elements of the ISS. The FSS gas/liquid separator fulfills an additional design requirement of removing entrained gas from fluids by means of a static membrane separator. The FSS and some ancillary equipment also perform Seal Leak Check (SLC), pressure removal and equalization, and window assembly maintenance on ISS.
Technical Paper

Electrochemical Ozone Generator for In Situ Sterilization of Potable Water and Wastewater

Disinfection of water and wastewater was proven to be feasible using a Breadboard Electrochemical Ozone Generator (EOG). A static gas/liquid separator, containing a microporous, hydrophobic membrane, was tested with the Breadboard EOG, and was found to increase the concentration of the ozone (O3) dissolved in the water. Distilled water and selected wastewaters were disinfected, achieving dissolved O3 concentrations up to 3 mg/L. The hardware is capable of operating in 0-g and 1-g environments. An end-item Electrochemical Ozonator (EO), sized to disinfect 116 kg of potable water per day, was projected to weigh 1.2 kg and consume only 18.5 W.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fluid Systems Servicer (FSS) for the International Space Station

The Fluid Systems Servicer (FSS) is designed to drain, purge, fill, and recirculate fluids while performing on-orbit start-up, scheduled, and unscheduled maintenance for fluid lines on the International Space Station (ISS). The FSS will utilize space vacuum for purging operations, thus, providing essentially unpowered vacuum back-filling capability. There is also a fluids pump in the FSS which is used for draining and recirculating water. The recirculation mode fulfills an additional design requirement of removing gas bubbles by directing water through a static membrane separator. Several flex-lines and adapters which interface various ISS lines via self-sealing Quick Disconnects (QD), are part of the FSS assembly. The FSS has its own power cord enabling excellent transportability. This feature, as well as, the QD adapters, enables the FSS to be used anywhere on station for numerous servicing tasks.
Technical Paper

An Update of the Readiness of Vapor Compression Distillation for Spacecraft Wastewater Processing

Vapor Compression Distillation technology has proved its readiness as a spacecraft wastewater processor as evidenced by selection of this technology for the Urine Processor Assembly aboard Space Station Freedom. In conjunction with Boeing Aerospace Company and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Life Systems' technical team has made significant advances in both flight hardware design and software operational aspects. The flight hardware design has focused on Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) design, ORU rack packaging and ORU weight reduction. On orbit operational aspects of software include operating modes, process control loops, fault detection and fault isolation. These improvements are further indication that Vapor Compression Distillation will be the key to providing wastewater regeneration essential for long-term human survival in space.
Technical Paper

Air Revitalization System Integration

This paper will present a status review of Spacecraft Air Revitalization System (ARS) integration using regenerable techniques. The paper will address concepts of integration of individual subsystems into an Air Revitalization System, as well as integration of components within subsystems. An ARS design is presented based on the Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator Subsystem, the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Subsystem, the Static Feed Water Electrolysis Subsystem, a condensing Humidity Control Subsystem, and a Water Handling Subsystem to perform the functions of CO2 removal, CO2 reduction, O2 generation, humidity control and by-product water distribution, respectively. The paper will also highlight the numerous advantages of this integration. Trace contaminant control and the nitrogen supply are not included in the ARS described in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Russian and American Oxygen Generation Hardware

Cooperation between Russia and the United States on manned spaceflight has led to unprecedented openness, resulting in the ability to now compare the characteristics of environmental control/life support hardware selected to generate oxygen (O2) by water electrolysis for space station applications. This comparison in this paper focuses on the characteristics that have the greatest effect on the cost of assembling and maintaining the hardware in space: launch weight, volume, power consumption, resupply requirements and maintenance labor.