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Technical Paper

The Role of the Small Jet in the Airline Training Syllabus

During the early part of 1967 the Lockheed-Georgia Co. initiated a program to determine the feasibility of utilizing the Lockheed JetStar as a trainer for airline pilots in order to reduce the flight time required in line equipment. Most U.S. airlines were contacted; airlines, as well as FAA operations personnel, evaluated the airplane in flight as a trainer, and participated in developing the techniques to provide the most useful training. This paper summarizes the development of this program and presents some preliminary conclusions on the economic advantages gained from utilizing the small jet in the airline training syllabus. Some discussion of the future development of the small jet required to simulate such aircraft as the 747 and SST is also included.
Technical Paper

The High Technology Test Bed Program - An Overview

Tactical Airlifters in the battlefield of the future will be required to operate on unprepared or damaged runways in all weather conditions without navigational or landing aids. Lockheed is addressing technologies required for these missions in an independent research and development program using a highly modified commercial C-130 aircraft as the technology integration focal point - a “Flying Laboratory.” The HTTB Program addresses the major technology areas of advanced short takeoff and Sanding, survivability, advanced cockpit, and electronic systems. The Program goal is to develop systems to support autonomous operations into a 1500-foot landing area, up to and including a 50-foot obstacle at the runway threshold.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Complete Wake Integral for the Drag of a Car-Like Shape

Maskell's approach for performing drag integrals in far-field fully-developed three-dimensional wakes has been extended for near-field application. The extended theory has been applied to wake survey data at two traverse stations involving a stalled wing, and an idealized car model tested over a fixed ground at two yaw angles. As a spin-off, cross-flow velocity vector plots have been resolved into vorticity-driven and source-driven components, which give added insight into complicated flows. The new extension appears to work well in application to the test data, but correlations with balance measurements were compromised by fixed-floor flow problems. A limited review suggests that, while problems of wake definition may be soluble at zero yaw, changes in flow topology may negate comparable solutions with the model yawed. These difficulties are circumvented if a moving ground is employed.
Technical Paper

Development Testing of the New Generation of Large Jet Aircraft

The new generation of large transport aircraft require the utilization of improved development test techniques discussed in this paper to ensure timely and efficient development cycles. Although the development test program on the C-5, largest of today's airplanes, has not been completed, a comprehensive accumulation of significant data in all test phases and extensive experience in managing and conducting the testing of these huge transports have been obtained. The C-5 greatly advances the state-of-the-art, but more important to this presentation are the advancements in test techniques. Increased aircraft size and complexity require additional emphasis on early, valid planning for test facilities and support equipment. Improved techniques for data retrieval and additional sophistication in laboratory test loading systems are essential for efficient accomplishment of the program.
Technical Paper

Design Studies of Low-Noise Propulsive-Lift Airplanes

A review is presented of low-noise airplanes designed for operation in the 1980 time period. Aircraft with parametric engines covering a range of fan pressure ratios and noise levels were developed conceptually under contract with NASA Advanced Concepts and Missions Division, supported by the NASA Lewis Research Center contracts for the Quiet Clean STOL Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Study Program. Powered-lift concepts included externally blown flap, augmentor wing, internally blown flap, and over-the-wing upper surface blowing. Performance, sizing, and costs are described for 148 passenger airplanes with design field length varying from 2000-4000 ft. Techniques for reducing noise are evaluated in terms of aircraft performance, weight, and cost; experimental data on decayer nozzles are presented and assessed with respect to effectiveness in exhaust noise reduction and aircraft performance penalties.
Technical Paper

Beryllium Brake Experience on the C-5A Airplane

The critical design weight environment necessary to optimize load-carrying efficiency of the C-5A was such that breakthroughs in technology were needed. One such breakthrough was beryllium brakes. From the discovery of beryllium in 1798 its advantages-as well as its disadvantages-were well known. These are discussed to indicate why beryllium was chosen as the brake heat sink material for the design configuration evolved. A review of current C-5A data is presented, including flight test experience, as well as expected life projection from limited normal operational experience. The re-use of beryllium elements, and cost effectiveness are also discussed. A consideration of the future use of beryllium is indicated, with the conclusion that it will become commonplace in the next decade.
Technical Paper

Advanced Technology for STOL Transports

From an analysis of a typical large airport and its growth problems, it is concluded that STOL aircraft systems are needed now-with or without high-speed ground transportation systems. It is also shown that the needed first-generation STOL aircraft can be in operation in 1975. These contemporary STOL aircraft will, however, be only a step in the evolution to improved aircraft of the future. The needs for technological improvements are discussed, and some new prospects in STOL technology are described.