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Technical Paper

Using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Eliminate Turbo-Lag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1452
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
Technical Paper

Towards Optimal Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0050
Thermoelectric generator has very quickly become a hot research topic in the last five years because its broad application area and very attractive features such as no moving parts, low maintenance, variety of thermoelectric materials that total together cover a wide temperature range. The biggest disadvantage of the thermoelectric generator is its low conversion efficiency. So that when design and manufacture a thermoelectric generator for exhaust waste heat recovery from an automotive engine, the benefit of fuel consumption from applying a thermoelectric generator would be very sensitive to the weight, the dimensions, the cost and the practical conversion efficiency. Additionally, the exhaust gas conditions vary with the change of engine operating point. This creates a big challenge for the design of the hot side heat exchanger in terms of optimizing the electrical output of the thermoelectric generator during an engine transient cycle.
Journal Article

The Study of a Bi-Stable Wake Region of a Generic Squareback Vehicle using Tomographic PIV

2016-04-05
2016-01-1610
This paper demonstrates the use of large scale tomographic PIV to study the wake region of a Windsor model. This forms part of a larger study intending to understand the mechanisms that drive drag force changes when rear end optimizations are applied. For the first time, tomographic PIV has been applied to a large airflow volume (0.125m3, 500 x 500 x 500mm), which is of sufficient size to capture the near wake of a 25% scale Windsor model in a single measurement. The measurement volume is illuminated using a 200mJ double pulsed Nd:Yag laser fitted with a volume optic and seeded with 300μm helium filled soap bubbles generated by a novel high output seeder. Images were captured using four 4M Pixel LaVision cameras. The tomographic results are shown to produce high quality data with the setup used, but further improvements and tests at higher Reynolds number could be conducted if an additional seeding rake was used to increase seeding density.
Technical Paper

The Role of New Automotive Engineering Masters Programme in the Industry in China

2016-04-05
2016-01-0171
China is the world’s largest automotive producer and has the world’s biggest automobile market. However, in the past decades, the development of China’s automotive industry has depended primarily on the foreign direct investment; domestic automakers have struggled in the lower ranks of car producers. In recent years, China’s automotive industry, supported by government policies, has been improving their Research and Development (R&D) capacity, to compete with their international peers. Against this background, China’s automotive industry requires a large number of R&D professionals who have not only a higher degree but also the applied and practical knowledge and skills of research. For the purpose of meeting the industry’s needs, a new Professional Automotive Engineering Masters Programme was launched in 2009, which aims to deliver the Masters to be the R&D professionals in the future.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Underbody Roughness on Rear Wake Structure of a Squareback Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0463
In this paper the effects of a rough underbody on the rear wake structure of a simplified squareback model (the Windsor model) is investigated using balance measurements, base pressure measurements and two and three component planar PIV. The work forms part of a larger study to develop understanding of the mechanisms that influence overall base pressure and hence the resulting aerodynamic drag. In the work reported in this paper the impact of a rough underbody on the base pressure and wake flow structures is quantified at three different ground clearances. The underbody roughness has been created through the addition of five roughness strips to the underbody of the model and the effects on the wake at ground clearances of 10.3%, 17.3% and 24.2% of the model height are assessed. All work has been carried out in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel with a ¼ scale model giving a blockage ratio of 4.4% for a smooth under-body or 4.5% with the maximum thickness roughness strips.
Journal Article

The Effect of a Sheared Crosswind Flow on Car Aerodynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1536
In the wind tunnel the effect of a wind input on the aerodynamic characteristics of any road vehicle is simulated by yawing the vehicle. This represents a wind input where the wind velocity is constant with height above the ground. In reality the natural wind is a boundary layer flow and is sheared so that the wind velocity will vary with height. A CFD simulation has been conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of a DrivAer model, in fastback and squareback form, subject to a crosswind flow, with and without shear. The yaw simulation has been carried out at a yaw angle of 10° and with one shear flow exponent. It is shown that the car experiences almost identical forces and moments in the two cases when the mass flow in the crosswind over the height of the car is similar. Load distributions are presented for the two cases. The implications for wind averaged drag are discussed.
Journal Article

The Effect of Passive Base Ventilation on the Aerodynamic Drag of a Generic SUV Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1548
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) typically have a blunt rear end shape (for design and practicality), however this is not beneficial for aerodynamic drag. Drag can be reduced by a number of passive and active methods such as tapering and blowing into the base. In an effort to combine these effects and to reduce the drag of a visually square geometry slots have been introduced in the upper side and roof trailing edges of a squareback geometry, to take air from the freestream and passively injects it into the base of the vehicle to effectively create a tapered body. This investigation has been conducted in the Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale generic SUV model. The basic aerodynamic effect of a range of body tapers and straight slots have been assessed for 0° yaw. This includes force and pressure measurements for most configurations.
Technical Paper

Prediction of NOx Emissions of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with a NLARX Model

2009-11-02
2009-01-2796
This work describes the application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Models with Exogenous Inputs (NLARX) in order to predict the NOx emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Two experiments are presented: 1.) a Non-Road-Transient-Cycle (NRTC) 2.) a composition of different engine operation modes and different engine calibrations. Data sets are pre-processed by normalization and re-arranged into training and validation sets. The chosen model is taken from the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox using the algorithms provided. It is teacher forced trained and then validated. Training results show recognizable performance. However, the validation shows the potential of the chosen method.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Asymmetric Side Tapering in Constant Cross Wind Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0718
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) often have blunt rear end geometries for design and practicality, which is not typically aerodynamic. Drag can be reduced with a number of passive and active methods, which are generally prioritised at zero yaw, which is not entirely representative of the “on road” environment. As such, to combine a visually square geometry (at rest) with optimal drag reductions at non-zero yaw, an adaptive system that applies vertical side edge tapers independently is tested statically. A parametric study has been undertaken in Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale Windsor Model. The aerodynamic effect of implementing asymmetric side tapering has been assessed for a range of yaw angles (0°, ±2.5°, ±5° and ±10°) on the force and moment coefficients.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study into the Effects of Factors Affecting Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emission Levels

2007-04-16
2007-01-1084
The work presented investigates the effect of road gradient, head-wind, horizontal road curvature, changes in tyre rolling radius, vehicle drag co-efficient and vehicle weight on real-world emission levels of a modern EURO-IV vehicle. A validated steady-state engine performance map based vehicle modeling approach has been used for the analysis. The results showed that a generalized correction factor to include the effect of road-gradient on real-world emission levels might not yield accurate results, since the emission levels are strongly dependent on the position of the vehicle operating parameters on the engine maps. In addition, it also demonstrated that the inclusion of horizontal road curvature such as roundabouts and traffic islands are essential for the estimation of the real-world emission levels.
Technical Paper

On the Optimisation of Road Vehicle Leading Edge Radius in Varying Levels of Freestream Turbulence

2006-04-03
2006-01-1029
It has been recognised that the ideal flow conditions that exist in the modern automotive wind tunnel do not accurately simulate the environment experienced by vehicles on the road. This paper investigates the effect of varying one flow parameter, freestream turbulence, and a single shape parameter, leading edge radius, on aerodynamic drag. The tests were carried out at model scale in the Loughborough University Wind Tunnel, using a very simple 2-box shape, and in the MIRA Full Scale Wind Tunnel using the MIRA squareback Reference Car. Turbulence intensities up to 5% were generated by grids and had a strong effect on transcritical Reynolds number and Reynolds sensitivity at both model scale and full scale. There was a good correlation between the results in both tunnels.
Journal Article

Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

2016-09-27
2016-01-8029
A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
Technical Paper

Influence of Short Rear End Tapers on the Unsteady Base Pressure of a Simplified Ground Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1590
Short tapered sections on the trailing edge of the roof, underside and sides of a vehicle are a common feature of the aerodynamic optimization process and are known to have a significant effect on the base pressure and thereby the vehicle drag. In this paper the effects of such high aspect ratio chamfers on the time-dependent base pressure are investigated. Short tapered surfaces, with a chord approximately equal to 4% of the overall model length, were applied to the trailing edges of a simplified passenger car model (the Windsor Body) and base pressure studied via an array of surface pressure tappings. Two sets of configurations were tested. In the first case, a chamfer was applied only to the top or bottom trailing edge. A combination of taper angles was also considered. In the second case, the chamfer was applied to the side edges of the model base, leaving the horizontal trailing edges squared.
Technical Paper

Improved Thermoelectric Generator Performance Using High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

2017-03-28
2017-01-0121
Thermoelectric generator (TEG) has received more and more attention in its application in the harvesting of waste thermal energy in automotive engines. Even though the commercial Bismuth Telluride thermoelectric material only have 5% efficiency and 250°C hot side temperature limit, it is possible to generate peak 1kW electrical energy from a heavy-duty engine. If being equipped with 500W TEG, a passenger car has potential to save more than 2% fuel consumption and hence CO2 emission reduction. TEG has advantages of compact and motionless parts over other thermal harvest technologies such as Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Turbo-Compound (TC). Intense research works are being carried on improving the thermal efficiency of the thermoelectric materials and increasing the hot side temperature limit. Future thermoelectric modules are expected to have 10% to 20% efficiency and over 500°C hot side temperature limit.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Issues in the Application of a Novel Process Description Environment for Machine Design and Control Developed under the Foresight Vehicle Programme

2002-03-04
2002-01-0466
In the globalization of the automotive businesses, manufacturing companies and their suppliers are forced to distribute the various lifecycle phases in different geographical locations. Misunderstandings arising from the variety of personnel involved, each with different requirements, backgrounds, roles, cultures and skills for example can result in increased cost and development time. To enable collaborating companies to have a common platform for interaction, the COMPANION project at Loughborough University has been undertaken to develop a common model-based environment for manufacturing automotive engines. Through the use of this environment, the stakeholders will be able to “visualize” consistently the evolution of automated systems at every lifecycle stage i.e. requirements definition, specification, design, analysis, build, evaluation, maintenance, diagnostics and recycle.
Technical Paper

Genetic Learning Automata and Fuzzy Controller Applied to Active Suspension

2003-03-03
2003-01-0133
An application in the automotive filed for the Genetic Learning Automata Fuzzy Classifier System is presented in this work. As a non-linear model free-based strategy, the major advantages of this approach are its modularity and its extensibility. A controller designed using this method for a quarter-car model is applied to a 6-DOF model giving a reasonable performance. Comparisons with the LQR controller are also carried out.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

2008-04-14
2008-01-0634
A qualitative FMEA study of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) technology is established and presented in the current work through a literature survey of mechanisms that govern performance degradation and failure. The literature findings are translated into Fault Tree (FT) diagrams that depict how basic events can develop into performance degradation or failure in the context of the following top events; (1) activation losses; (2) mass transportation losses; (3) Ohmic losses; (4) efficiency losses and (5) catastrophic cell failure. Twenty-two identified faults and forty-seven frequent causes are translated into fifty-two basic events and a system of FTs with twenty-one reoccurring dominant mechanisms. The four most dominant mechanisms discussed that currently curtail sustained fuel cell performance relate to membrane durability, liquid water formation, flow-field design, and manufacturing practices.
Journal Article

Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid Simulations of Water Flowing Over a Simplified Drainage Channel With and Without Air Coflow

2017-03-28
2017-01-1552
The motivation for this paper is to predict the flow of water over exterior surfaces of road vehicles. We present simulations of liquid flows on solid surfaces under the influence of gravity with and without the addition of aerodynamic forces on the liquid. This is done using an implementation of a Coupled Level Set Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) multiphase approach implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD code. This is a high fidelity interface-resolving method that solves for the velocity field in both phases without restrictions on the flow regime. In the current paper the suitability of the approach to Exterior Water Management (EWM) is demonstrated using the representative test cases of a continuous liquid rivulet flowing along an inclined surface with a channel located downstream perpendicular to the oncoming flow.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Kalman Filter and Robust Filter for Vehicle Handling Dynamics State Estimation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1185
This paper explores design methods for a vehicle handling dynamics state estimator based on a linear vehicle model. The state estimator is needed because there are some states of the vehicle that cannot be measured directly, such as sideslip velocity, and also some which are relatively expensive to measure, such as roll and yaw rates. Information about the vehicle states is essential for vehicle handling stability control and is also valuable in chassis design evaluation. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a Kalman filter with that of a robust filter, under conditions which would be realistic and viable for a production vehicle. Both filters are thus designed and tested with reference to a higher order source model which incorporates nonlinear saturating tyre force characteristics. Also, both filters rely solely on accelerometer sensors, which are simulated with expected noise characteristics in terms of amplitude and spectra.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Wake Structure of Square Back Vehicles and the Effect of Structure Modification on Resultant Vehicle Forces

2011-06-09
2011-37-0015
A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle (30%(1) or more depending on vehicle shape) arises from the low base pressure in the wake region, especially on square-back configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimization, but the flow structures and mechanisms within the wake that cause these base pressure changes are not well understood. A more complete understanding of these mechanisms may provide opportunities for further drag reductions from both passive shape changes and in the future through the use of active flow control technologies. In this work surprisingly large changes in drag and lift coefficients of a square-back style vehicle have been measured as a result of physically small passive modifications. Tests were performed at quarter scale using a simplified vehicle model (Windsor Model) and at full scale using an MPV. The full scale vehicle was tested with and without a flat floor.
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