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Technical Paper

Using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Eliminate Turbo-Lag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1452
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1835
Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Technical Paper

Towards Optimal Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0050
Thermoelectric generator has very quickly become a hot research topic in the last five years because its broad application area and very attractive features such as no moving parts, low maintenance, variety of thermoelectric materials that total together cover a wide temperature range. The biggest disadvantage of the thermoelectric generator is its low conversion efficiency. So that when design and manufacture a thermoelectric generator for exhaust waste heat recovery from an automotive engine, the benefit of fuel consumption from applying a thermoelectric generator would be very sensitive to the weight, the dimensions, the cost and the practical conversion efficiency. Additionally, the exhaust gas conditions vary with the change of engine operating point. This creates a big challenge for the design of the hot side heat exchanger in terms of optimizing the electrical output of the thermoelectric generator during an engine transient cycle.
Technical Paper

Towards In-Cylinder Flow Informed Engine Control Strategies Using Linear Stochastic Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0717
Many modern I.C. engines rely on some form of active control of injection, timing and/or ignition timing to help combat tailpipe out emissions, increase the fuel economy and improve engine drivability. However, development of these strategies is often optimised to suit the average cycle at each condition; an assumption that can lead to sub-optimal performance, especially an increase in particulate (PN) emissions as I.C. engine operation, and in-particular its charge motion is subject to cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV). Literature shows that the locations of otherwise repeatable large-scale flow structures may vary by as much 25% of the bore dimension; this could have an impact on fuel break-up and distribution and therefore subsequent combustion performance and emissions.
Journal Article

The Study of a Bi-Stable Wake Region of a Generic Squareback Vehicle using Tomographic PIV

2016-04-05
2016-01-1610
This paper demonstrates the use of large scale tomographic PIV to study the wake region of a Windsor model. This forms part of a larger study intending to understand the mechanisms that drive drag force changes when rear end optimizations are applied. For the first time, tomographic PIV has been applied to a large airflow volume (0.125m3, 500 x 500 x 500mm), which is of sufficient size to capture the near wake of a 25% scale Windsor model in a single measurement. The measurement volume is illuminated using a 200mJ double pulsed Nd:Yag laser fitted with a volume optic and seeded with 300μm helium filled soap bubbles generated by a novel high output seeder. Images were captured using four 4M Pixel LaVision cameras. The tomographic results are shown to produce high quality data with the setup used, but further improvements and tests at higher Reynolds number could be conducted if an additional seeding rake was used to increase seeding density.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Fuel Metering Control for Optimising Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0894
Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers attractive benefits through simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides and soot. However, it is known that the in-cylinder conditions typical of LTC operation tend to produce high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO), reducing combustion efficiency. The present study develops from the hypothesis that this characteristic poor combustion efficiency is due to in-cylinder mixture preparation strategies that are non-optimally matched to the requirements of the LTC combustion mode. In this work, the effects of three key fuel path parameters - injection fuel quantity ratio, dwell and injection timing - on CO and HC emissions were examined using a Central Composite Design (CCD) Design of Experiments (DOE) method.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Liner - Piston Skirt Oil Film Thickness by an Ultrasonic Means

2006-04-03
2006-01-0648
The paper presents a novel method for the measurement of lubricant film thickness in the piston-liner contact. Direct measurement of the film in this conjunction has always posed a problem, particularly under fired conditions. The principle is based on capturing and analysing the reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the oil film. The proportion of the wave amplitude reflected can be related to the thickness of the oil film. A single cylinder 4-stroke engine on a dyno test platform was used for evaluation of the method. A piezo-electric transducer was bonded to the outside of the cylinder liner and used to emit high frequency short duration ultrasonic pulses. These pulses were used to determine the oil film thickness as the piston skirt passed over the sensor location. Oil films in the range 2 to 21 μm were recorded varying with engine speeds. The results have been shown to be in agreement with detailed numerical predictions.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Thermoelectric Materials and Operation Conditions on the Performance of Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive

2016-04-05
2016-01-0219
An automotive engine can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert a portion of the exhaust gas enthalpy into electricity. Due to the relatively low cost of the incoming thermal energy, the efficiency of the TEG is not an overriding consideration. Instead, the maximum power output (MPO) is the first priority. The MPO of the TEG is closely related to not only the thermoelectric materials properties, but also the operating conditions. This study shows the development of a numerical TEG model integrated with a plate-fin heat exchanger, which is designed for automotive waste heat recovery (WHR) in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path in a diesel engine. This model takes into account the following factors: the exhaust gas properties’ variation along the flow direction, temperature influence on the thermoelectric materials, thermal contact effect, and heat transfer leakage effect. Its accuracy has been checked using engine test data.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Underbody Roughness on Rear Wake Structure of a Squareback Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0463
In this paper the effects of a rough underbody on the rear wake structure of a simplified squareback model (the Windsor model) is investigated using balance measurements, base pressure measurements and two and three component planar PIV. The work forms part of a larger study to develop understanding of the mechanisms that influence overall base pressure and hence the resulting aerodynamic drag. In the work reported in this paper the impact of a rough underbody on the base pressure and wake flow structures is quantified at three different ground clearances. The underbody roughness has been created through the addition of five roughness strips to the underbody of the model and the effects on the wake at ground clearances of 10.3%, 17.3% and 24.2% of the model height are assessed. All work has been carried out in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel with a ¼ scale model giving a blockage ratio of 4.4% for a smooth under-body or 4.5% with the maximum thickness roughness strips.
Journal Article

The Effect of a Sheared Crosswind Flow on Car Aerodynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1536
In the wind tunnel the effect of a wind input on the aerodynamic characteristics of any road vehicle is simulated by yawing the vehicle. This represents a wind input where the wind velocity is constant with height above the ground. In reality the natural wind is a boundary layer flow and is sheared so that the wind velocity will vary with height. A CFD simulation has been conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of a DrivAer model, in fastback and squareback form, subject to a crosswind flow, with and without shear. The yaw simulation has been carried out at a yaw angle of 10° and with one shear flow exponent. It is shown that the car experiences almost identical forces and moments in the two cases when the mass flow in the crosswind over the height of the car is similar. Load distributions are presented for the two cases. The implications for wind averaged drag are discussed.
Journal Article

The Effect of Passive Base Ventilation on the Aerodynamic Drag of a Generic SUV Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1548
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) typically have a blunt rear end shape (for design and practicality), however this is not beneficial for aerodynamic drag. Drag can be reduced by a number of passive and active methods such as tapering and blowing into the base. In an effort to combine these effects and to reduce the drag of a visually square geometry slots have been introduced in the upper side and roof trailing edges of a squareback geometry, to take air from the freestream and passively injects it into the base of the vehicle to effectively create a tapered body. This investigation has been conducted in the Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale generic SUV model. The basic aerodynamic effect of a range of body tapers and straight slots have been assessed for 0° yaw. This includes force and pressure measurements for most configurations.
Technical Paper

The Effect of EGR on Diesel Engine Wear

1999-03-01
1999-01-0839
As part of an ongoing programme of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) wear investigations, this paper reports a study into the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation, and a variety of interacting factors, on the wear rate of the top piston ring and the liner top ring reversal point on a 1.0 litre/cylinder medium duty four cylinder diesel engine. Thin Layer Activation (TLA - also known as Surface Layer Activation in the US) has been used to provide individual wear rates for these components when engine operating conditions have been varied. The effects of oil condition, EGR level, fuel sulphur content and engine coolant temperature have been investigated at one engine speed at full load. The effects of engine load and uncooled EGR have also been assessed. The effects of these parameters on engine wear are presented and discussed. When EGR was applied a significant increase in wear was observed at EGR levels of between 10% and 15%.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Cylinder De-Activation on Thermo-Friction Characteristics of the Connecting Rod Bearing in the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC)

2014-06-30
2014-01-2089
This paper presents an investigation of Cylinder De-Activation (CDA) technology on the performance of big end bearings. A multi-physics approach is used in order to take into account more realistic dynamic loading effects on the tribological behavior. The power loss, minimum film thickness and maximum temperature of big end bearings have been calculated during maneuver pertaining to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Results show that bearing efficiency runs contrary to efficiency gained through combustion and pumping losses. Under CDA mode, the power loss of big end bearings is more than the power loss under engine normal mode. The problem is predominant at higher engine speeds and higher Brake mean Effective Pressures (BMEP) in active cylinders. It is also observed that the minimum film thickness is reduced under the CDA mode. This can affect wear performance. In addition, same behavior is noted for the maximum temperature rise which is higher under CDA.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Asymmetric Side Tapering in Constant Cross Wind Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0718
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) often have blunt rear end geometries for design and practicality, which is not typically aerodynamic. Drag can be reduced with a number of passive and active methods, which are generally prioritised at zero yaw, which is not entirely representative of the “on road” environment. As such, to combine a visually square geometry (at rest) with optimal drag reductions at non-zero yaw, an adaptive system that applies vertical side edge tapers independently is tested statically. A parametric study has been undertaken in Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale Windsor Model. The aerodynamic effect of implementing asymmetric side tapering has been assessed for a range of yaw angles (0°, ±2.5°, ±5° and ±10°) on the force and moment coefficients.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study into the Effects of Factors Affecting Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emission Levels

2007-04-16
2007-01-1084
The work presented investigates the effect of road gradient, head-wind, horizontal road curvature, changes in tyre rolling radius, vehicle drag co-efficient and vehicle weight on real-world emission levels of a modern EURO-IV vehicle. A validated steady-state engine performance map based vehicle modeling approach has been used for the analysis. The results showed that a generalized correction factor to include the effect of road-gradient on real-world emission levels might not yield accurate results, since the emission levels are strongly dependent on the position of the vehicle operating parameters on the engine maps. In addition, it also demonstrated that the inclusion of horizontal road curvature such as roundabouts and traffic islands are essential for the estimation of the real-world emission levels.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics and CFD Validation of Jacket Cooling System Filling and the Occurrence of Trapped Air

2012-04-16
2012-01-1213
This paper reports the findings from an experimental investigation of the engine cooling jacket filling process for a medium duty off-highway diesel engine to characterise the physical processes that lead to the occurrence of trapped air. The motivation for the project was to provide knowledge and data to aid the development of a computational design tool capable of predicting the amount and location of trapped air in a cooling circuit following a fill event. To quantify the coolant filling process, a transparent replica of a section of the cylinder head cooling core was manufactured from acrylic to allow the application of optical diagnostic techniques. Experimentation has characterised the coolant filling process through the use of three optical techniques. These include the two established methods of High-Speed Imaging and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), as well as a novel approach developed for tracking the liquid-air interface during the fill event.
Technical Paper

On the Optimisation of Road Vehicle Leading Edge Radius in Varying Levels of Freestream Turbulence

2006-04-03
2006-01-1029
It has been recognised that the ideal flow conditions that exist in the modern automotive wind tunnel do not accurately simulate the environment experienced by vehicles on the road. This paper investigates the effect of varying one flow parameter, freestream turbulence, and a single shape parameter, leading edge radius, on aerodynamic drag. The tests were carried out at model scale in the Loughborough University Wind Tunnel, using a very simple 2-box shape, and in the MIRA Full Scale Wind Tunnel using the MIRA squareback Reference Car. Turbulence intensities up to 5% were generated by grids and had a strong effect on transcritical Reynolds number and Reynolds sensitivity at both model scale and full scale. There was a good correlation between the results in both tunnels.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Particulate Filter Regeneration Using Rapid Pulse Electric Discharges

2013-04-08
2013-01-0518
This research introduces a new, novel approach to reverse flow particulate filter regeneration enabled by rapidly pulsed electric discharges. The discharges physically dislodge particulate matter (PM) from the filter substrate and allow a very low reverse air flow to transport it to a soot handling system. The system is operable independent of filter temperature, does not expose the filter to high thermal stresses or temperatures, has no apparent upper limit for filter PM-mass level (regeneration of a filter up to 17 g/L has been demonstrated), and does not require any catalyst. The system is inherently scalable allowing application to monolithic filters of any size or shape and can be tailored to suit specific application requirements such as limits on maximum regeneration time or power consumption. For example a light duty application would require as little as 200-500W electrical power to regenerate a filter in less than ten minutes (i.e. passenger car GPF or DPF).
Journal Article

Modelling the Effect of Spray Breakup, Coalescence, and Evaporation on Vehicle Surface Contamination Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0705
Vehicle surface contamination is an important design consideration as it affects drivers’ vision and the performance of onboard camera and sensor systems. Previous work has shown that eddy-resolving methods are able to accurately capture the flow field and particle transport, leading to good agreement for vehicle soiling with experiments. What is less clear is whether the secondary breakup, coalescence, and evaporation of liquid particles play an important role in spray dynamics. The work reported here attempts to answer this and also give an idea of the computational cost associated with these extra physics models. A quarter-scale generic Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) model is used as a test case in which the continuous phase is solved using the Spalart-Allmaras Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) model. The dispersed phase is computed concurrently with the continuous phase using the Lagrangian approach.
Technical Paper

Mode Transition Optimisation for Variable Displacement Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0619
The deactivation of one or more cylinders in internal combustion engines has long been established in literature as a means of reducing engine pumping losses and thereby improving brake specific fuel consumption. As down-sizing and down-speeding of modern engines becomes more extreme, drivability issues associated with mode transition become more acute and need to be managed within a suitable calibration framework. This paper presents methodology by which a calibration may be deduced for optimal mode-transitioning in respect of minimising the torque disturbance as cylinders are deactivated and re-activated. At the outset of this study a physics based engine model is used to investigate the key parameters that influence the transition. Having understood these, experiments are designed to establish the level of mode transition disturbance using quantitative statistical indicators such that the cost function may be defined and an optimisation undertaken.
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