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Technical Paper

Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Velocity Measurements

The object of this paper is to present a new way of analyzing in-cylinder velocity measurements. The technique is called Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and it is similar to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with one important difference it is possible to obtain both time localized and frequency resolved information. This paper demonstrates the use of DWT calculations on in-cylinder LDV flow measurements for different combustion geometries in a natural gas converted truck engine. It will furthermore provide some information about how DWT can be used with in-cylinder measurements in the future.
Technical Paper

Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Measurements and Correlation Against Heat-Release

Wavelet analysis was used to calculate turbulence and mean velocity levels for LDV measurements made in a four valve spark ignition engine. Five different camshafts were tested, and they produce significantly different flow behaviour. The standard cam gives tumble and with valve deactivation, swirl is produced. One camshaft with early inlet valve closing and two camshafts with late inlet valve closing were also tested. The wavelet toolbox for Matlab version 5.1 has been used for the wavelet calculations. The wavelet technique produces both time resolved and frequency resolved velocity information. The results indicate some influence of the turbulence frequency content on the rate of heat release. Correlation against heat-release can be seen for different scales of turbulence. The breakdown of the tumble (low frequency turbulence) into high frequency turbulence can be seen clearly.
Journal Article

Water Injection Benefits in a 3-Cylinder Downsized SI-Engine

With progressing electrification of automotive powertrains and demands to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, a combination of an electric motor and downsized turbocharged spark-ignited engine has been recognized as a viable solution. The SI engine must be optimized, and preferentially downsized, to reduce tailpipe CO2 and other emissions. However, drives to increase BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and compression ratio/thermal efficiency increase propensities of knocking (auto-ignition of residual unburnt charge before the propagating flame reaches it) in downsized engines. Currently, knock is mitigated by retarding the ignition timing, but this has several limitations. Another option identified in the last decade (following trials of similar technology in aircraft combustion engines) is water injection, which suppresses knocking largely by reducing local in-cylinder mixture temperatures due to its latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Visualization of EGR Influence on Diesel Combustion With Long Ignition Delay in a Heavy-duty Engine

The effects of EGR on diesel combustion were visually examined in a single-cylinder heavy duty research engine with a low compression ratio, low swirl, a CR fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. Optical access was primarily obtained through the cylinder head. The effects of EGR were found to be significant. NOx emissions were reduced from over 500 ppm at 0% EGR to 5 ppm at 55% EGR. At higher levels of EGR (approximately 35% or more) there was a loss in efficiency. Constant fuel masses were injected. Results from the optical measurements and global emission data were compared in order to obtain a better understanding of the spray behaviour and mixing process. Optical measurements provide fundamental insights by visualizing air motion and combustion behaviour. The NOx reductions observed might be explained by reductions in oxygen concentration associated with the increases in EGR.
Technical Paper

Variable Valve Actuation for Timing Control of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

Autoignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions. Therefore fast combustion phasing control is necessary for reliable operation. There are several means to control the combustion phasing of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. This paper presents cycle-to-cycle cylinder individual control results from a six-cylinder HCCI engine using a Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) system. As feedback signal, the crank angle for 50% burned, based on cylinder pressure, is used. Three control structures are evaluated, Model Predictive Control (MPC), Linear Quadratic Gaussian control (LQG) and PID control. In the control design of the MPC and LQG controller, dynamic models obtained by system identification were used. Successful experiments were performed on a port-injected six-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine operating in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Using Multi-Rate Filter Banks to Detect Internal Combustion Engine Knock

The wavelet transform is used in the analysis of the cylinder pressure trace and the ionic current trace of a knocking, single-cylinder, spark ignition engine. Using the wavelet transform offers a significant reduction of mathematical operations when compared with traditional filtering techniques based on the Fourier transform. It is shown that conventional knock analysis in terms of average energy in the time domain (AETD), corresponding to the signal's energy content, and maximum amplitude in the time domain (MATD), corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the bandpass filtered signal, can be applied to both the reconstructed filtered cylinder pressure and the wavelet coefficients. The use of the filter coefficients makes possible a significant additional reduction in calculation effort in comparison with filters based on the windowed Fourier transform.
Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Technical Paper

Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model: Further Development and Implementation for 3-D Simulation of Combustion in SI Engine

A Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model is modified and implemented into the FIRE code for use in 3D computations of combustion in an SI-engine. The modifications are done to account for mixture inhomogeneity, and mixture compression through the dependency of local equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature on the chemical time scale and a global reaction time scale. The model is also subjected to further evaluation against experimental data, covering different mixture and turbulence conditions. The combustion process in a 4-valve pentroof combustion chamber is simulated and heat release rates and spatial flame distribution are evaluated against experimental data. The computations show good agreement with the experiments. The model has proven to be a robust and time effective simulation tool with good predictive ability.
Technical Paper

Transient Emission Predictions With Quasi Stationary Models

Heavy trucks contribute significantly to the overall air pollution, especially NOx and PM emissions. Models to predict the emissions from heavy trucks in real world on road conditions are therefore of great interest. Most such models are based on data achieved from stationary measurements, i.e. engine maps. This type of “quasi stationary” models could also be of interest in other applications where emission models of low complexity are desired, such as engine control and simulation and control of exhaust aftertreatment systems. In this paper, results from quasi stationary calculations of fuel consumption, CO, HC, NOx and PM emissions are compared with time resolved measurements of the corresponding quantities. Measurement data from three Euro 3-class engines is used. The differences are discussed in terms of the conditions during transients and correction models for quasi stationary calculations are presented. Simply using engine maps without transient correction is not sufficient.
Technical Paper

Toward an Effective Virtual Powertrain Calibration System

Due to stricter emission regulations and more environmental awareness, the powertrain systems are moving toward higher fuel efficiency and lower emissions. In response to these pressing needs, new technologies have been designed and implemented by manufacturers. As a result of increasing complexity of the powertrain systems, their control and optimization become more and more challenging. Virtual powertrain calibration, also known as model-based calibration, has been introduced to transfer a part of test bench testing into a virtual environment, and hence considerably reduce time and cost of product development process while increasing the product quality. Nevertheless, virtual calibration has not yet reached its full potential in industrial applications. Volvo Penta has recently developed a virtual test cell named VIRTEC, which is used in an ongoing pilot project to meet the Stage V emission standards.
Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurements of a Combusting Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall

The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall was studied by measuring the spray flame temperature time and spatially resolved. The influence of injection sequences, injection pressure and gas conditions on the heat transfer between the combusting spray and the wall was investigated by measuring the flame temperature during the complete injection event. The flame temperature was measured by an emission based optical method and determined by comparing the relative emission intensities from the soot in the flame at two wavelength intervals. The measurements were done by employing a monochromatic and non intensified high speed camera, an array of mirrors, interference filters and a beam splitter. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature (HP/HT) spray rig at conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct injected diesel engine prior to the injection of fuel.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Cycle and Working Fluid Selection for Waste Heat Recovery in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Thermodynamic power cycles have been shown to provide an excellent method for waste heat recovery (WHR) in internal combustion engines. By capturing and reusing heat that would otherwise be lost to the environment, the efficiency of engines can be increased. This study evaluates the maximum power output of different cycles used for WHR in a heavy duty Diesel engine with a focus on working fluid selection. Typically, only high temperature heat sources are evaluated for WHR in engines, whereas this study also considers the potential of WHR from the coolant. To recover the heat, four types of power cycles were evaluated: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), transcritical Rankine cycle, trilateral flash cycle, and organic flash cycle. This paper allows for a direct comparison of these cycles by simulating all cycles using the same boundary conditions and working fluids.
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

The Role of Aerodynamics in the 1955 Le Mans Crash

In the 1955 Le Mans race the worst crash in motor racing history occurred and this accident would change the face of motor racing for decades. After the crash numerous investigations on the disaster were performed, and fifty years after some interesting books were launched on the subject. However, a number of key questions remain unsolved; and one open area is the influence of aerodynamics on the scenario, since the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR involved in the crash was equipped with an air-brake and its influence on the accident is basically unknown. This work may be considered as a first attempt to establish CFD as a tool to aid in resolving aerodynamic aspects in motor sport accidents and in the present paper, CFD has been used to investigate the aerodynamics and estimate the drag and lift coefficients of the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR used in the Le Mans race of 1955.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Using the Ion-Current Signal for Optimizing Engine Stability - Comparisons of Lean and EGR (Stoichiometric) Operation

Ion current measurements can give information useful for controlling the combustion stability in a multi-cylinder engine. Operation near the dilution limit (air or EGR) can be achieved and it can be optimized individually for the cylinders, resulting in a system with better engine stability for highly diluted mixtures. This method will also compensate for engine wear, e.g. changes in volumetric efficiency and fuel injector characteristics. Especially in a port injected engine, changes in fuel injector characteristics can lead to increased emissions and deteriorated engine performance when operating with a closed-loop lambda control system. One problem using the ion-current signal to control engine stability near the lean limit is the weak signal resulting in low signal to noise ratio. Measurements presented in this paper were made on a turbocharged 9.6 liter six cylinder natural gas engine with port injection.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Late In-Cylinder Air Injection on In-Cylinder Flow Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

During development of an air assisted, direct injection combustion system, it was found that an air pulse during the late part of compression stroke significantly shortened the combustion duration and extended the lean limits of the engine. The effect of an injection of pure air through an air assist direct injector was studied with Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV. Results showed that an air pulse during the compression stroke significantly speeded up in-cylinder velocities, which also was showed in the heat release analysis. A system to use low density seeding particles was developed and is presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

The Influence of PRF and Commercial Fuels with High Octane Number on the Auto-ignition Timing of an Engine Operated in HCCI Combustion Mode with Negative Valve Overlap

A single-cylinder engine was operated in HCCI combustion mode with different kinds of commercial fuels. The HCCI combustion was generated by creating a negative valve overlap (early exhaust valve closing combined with late intake valve opening) thus trapping a large amount of residuals (∼ 55%). Fifteen different fuels with high octane numbers were tested six of which were primary reference fuels (PRF's) and nine were commercial fuels or reference fuels. The engine was operated at constant operational parameters (speed/load, valve timing and equivalence ratio, intake air temperature, compression ratio, etc.) changing only the fuel type while the engine was running. Changing the fuel affected the auto-ignition timing, represented by the 50% mass fraction burned location (CA50). However these changes were not consistent with the classical RON and MON numbers, which are measures of the knock resistance of the fuel. Indeed, no correlation was found between CA50 and the RON or MON numbers.
Technical Paper

The Influence of EGR on Heat Release Rate and NO Formation in a DI Diesel Engine

Exhaust Gas Recirculation, EGR, is one of the most effective means of reducing NOx emissions from diesel engines and is likely to be used in order to meet future emissions standards. Exhaust gases can either be used to replace some of the air that enters the engine or can be added to the intake flow. The former case has been studied in this paper. One advantage of air replacement is that the exhaust mass flow is reduced in addition to the decreased NOx formation. The objective of this study has been to take a closer look at the factors affecting NOx emissions at different EGR rates. This is done by combining heat release analysis, based on measured pressure traces and NO formation in a multi zone combustion model. The model used is an improved version of an earlier presented model [1]. One feature in the new model is the possibility to separate the NO formation during the premixed combustion from NO formed during the diffusive combustion.
Technical Paper

The Importance of High-Frequency, Small-Eddy Turbulence in Spark Ignited, Premixed Engine Combustion

The different roles played by small and large eddies in engine combustion were studied. Experiments compared natural gas combustion in a converted, single cylinder Volvo TD 102 engine and in a 125 mm cubical cell. Turbulence is used to enhance flame growth, ideally giving better efficiency and reduced cyclic variation. Both engine and test cell results showed that flame growth rate correlated best with the level of high frequency, small eddy turbulence. The more effective, small eddy turbulence also tended to lower cyclic variations. Large scales and bulk flows convected the flame relative to cool surfaces and were most important to the initial flame kernel.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Multirow Nozzles on Diesel Combustion

In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. To meet the stringent emission legislations of the future, which will demand substantial reductions of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines, the spray and mixing processes play a major roll. Different fuel injection systems and injection strategies have been developed to achieve better performance and lower emissions from the diesel engine almost without investigating the influence of the injector nozzle orifices. A reduction in the nozzle orifice diameter is important for an increased mixing rate and formation of smaller droplets which is beneficial from emissions and fuel consumption point of view, as long as the local air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) is kept at a sufficiently lean level.