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Technical Paper

Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Velocity Measurements

1996-10-01
961921
The object of this paper is to present a new way of analyzing in-cylinder velocity measurements. The technique is called Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and it is similar to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with one important difference it is possible to obtain both time localized and frequency resolved information. This paper demonstrates the use of DWT calculations on in-cylinder LDV flow measurements for different combustion geometries in a natural gas converted truck engine. It will furthermore provide some information about how DWT can be used with in-cylinder measurements in the future.
Technical Paper

Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Measurements and Correlation Against Heat-Release

1998-02-23
980483
Wavelet analysis was used to calculate turbulence and mean velocity levels for LDV measurements made in a four valve spark ignition engine. Five different camshafts were tested, and they produce significantly different flow behaviour. The standard cam gives tumble and with valve deactivation, swirl is produced. One camshaft with early inlet valve closing and two camshafts with late inlet valve closing were also tested. The wavelet toolbox for Matlab version 5.1 has been used for the wavelet calculations. The wavelet technique produces both time resolved and frequency resolved velocity information. The results indicate some influence of the turbulence frequency content on the rate of heat release. Correlation against heat-release can be seen for different scales of turbulence. The breakdown of the tumble (low frequency turbulence) into high frequency turbulence can be seen clearly.
Technical Paper

Wake and Unsteady Surface-Pressure Measurements on an SUV with Rear-End Extensions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1545
Previous research on both small-scale and full-scale vehicles shows that base extensions are an effective method to increase the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake size. These extensions decrease drag at zero yaw, but show an even larger improvement at small yaw angles. In this paper, rear extensions are investigated on an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel with focus on the wake flow and on the unsteady behavior of the surface pressures near the base perimeter. To increase the effect of the extensions on the wake flow, the investigated configurations have a closed upper- and lower grille (closed-cooling) and the underbody has been smoothed with additional panels. This paper aims to analyze differences in flow characteristics on the wake of an SUV at 0° and 2.5° yaw, caused by different sets of extensions attached to the base perimeter. Extensions with several lengths are investigated with and without a kick.
Technical Paper

Variable Valve Actuation for Timing Control of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0147
Autoignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions. Therefore fast combustion phasing control is necessary for reliable operation. There are several means to control the combustion phasing of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. This paper presents cycle-to-cycle cylinder individual control results from a six-cylinder HCCI engine using a Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) system. As feedback signal, the crank angle for 50% burned, based on cylinder pressure, is used. Three control structures are evaluated, Model Predictive Control (MPC), Linear Quadratic Gaussian control (LQG) and PID control. In the control design of the MPC and LQG controller, dynamic models obtained by system identification were used. Successful experiments were performed on a port-injected six-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine operating in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Quantification of Flow Uniformity Measurements in a Slotted Wall Wind Tunnel

2019-04-02
2019-01-0656
The need for a more complete understanding of the flow behavior in aerodynamic wind tunnels has increased as they have become vital tools not only for vehicle development, but also for vehicle certification. One important aspect of the behavior is the empty test section flow, which in a conventional tunnel should be as uniform as possible. In order to assess the uniformity and ensure consistent behavior over time, accurate measurements need to be performed regularly. Furthermore, the uncertainties and errors of the measurements need to be minimized in order to resolve small non-uniformities. In this work, the quantification of the measurement uncertainties from the full measurement chain of the new flow uniformity measurement rig for the Volvo Cars aerodynamic wind tunnel is presented. The simulation based method used to account for flow interference of the probe mount is also discussed.
Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-09-13
2009-24-0043
Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Technical Paper

Transient Responses of Various Ammonia Formation Catalyst Configurations for Passive SCR in Lean-Burning Gasoline Engines under Various Real Engine Conditions.

2016-04-05
2016-01-0935
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
Technical Paper

Transient Emission Predictions With Quasi Stationary Models

2005-10-24
2005-01-3852
Heavy trucks contribute significantly to the overall air pollution, especially NOx and PM emissions. Models to predict the emissions from heavy trucks in real world on road conditions are therefore of great interest. Most such models are based on data achieved from stationary measurements, i.e. engine maps. This type of “quasi stationary” models could also be of interest in other applications where emission models of low complexity are desired, such as engine control and simulation and control of exhaust aftertreatment systems. In this paper, results from quasi stationary calculations of fuel consumption, CO, HC, NOx and PM emissions are compared with time resolved measurements of the corresponding quantities. Measurement data from three Euro 3-class engines is used. The differences are discussed in terms of the conditions during transients and correction models for quasi stationary calculations are presented. Simply using engine maps without transient correction is not sufficient.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Deactivation of Three-Way Catalysts: Comparison of Road-, Fuel-Cut and SAI- Aged Catalysts

2015-04-14
2015-01-1000
The objective of this study was to investigate which of the artificial aging cycles available in the automotive industry that causes major deactivation of three-way catalysts (TWCs) and can be used to obtain an aged catalyst similar to the road aged converter (160 000km). Standard bench cycle (SBC) aging with secondary air injection (SAI) covered aging with various mass flows - a flow from three cylinders into one catalyst system and a flow from three cylinders into two parallel connected catalysts. For rapid catalyst bench aging, secondary air injection is a very efficient tool to create exotherms. Furthermore, the effect on catalytic activity of SAI aging with poisons from oil and fuel dopants (P, Ca, Zn) was investigated. The catalysts were thoroughly characterized in light-off and oxygen storage capacity measurements, emission conversion as a function of lambda and load variation was determined.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Hydropiercing

2003-10-27
2003-01-2884
In this study, hydropiercing after hydroforming and prior to unloading was investigated. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how the used hydropiercing method and the selected material and process parameters affect the hole quality. Hydropiercing inwards, hydropiercing by folding the ‘scrap’ piece inwards and hydropiercing outwards were tested. The tube material was extruded AA6063-T4. The tube diameter and wall thickness were 107 mm and 2.5 mm respectively. Straight 1110-mm long tubes of this material were first hydroformed at 1300 bar and then hydropierced. Assuming that the largest (in magnitude) acceptable deflection at the hole edge is 0.2 mm, hydropiercing inwards at ≥ 1300 bar yield the best hole quality. However, the remaining scrap piece (in the tube) causes a handling problem that must be solved.
Technical Paper

The Volvo S40/V50 PZEV MY2007 with an Optimized 2.4l Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1260
The S40/V50 PZEV (partial zero emission vehicle) model year (MY) 2007 has an upgraded hardware configuration for improved PZEV capability balanced with the best possible customer attributes. The base engine is the Volvo naturally aspirated inline 5-cylinder that, together with new technology, achieves PZEV emission performance with maximum cost efficiency. The engine out emissions were reduced by a newly-developed injection synchronization strategy during engine crank. The reduced number of engine revolutions during crank result in less hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from the cylinder pumping effect prior to the first cylinder combustion. Thanks to the Volvo developed start strategy that during lean lambda operation generates an extreme temperature ramp in the front part of the catalyst in a very early phase after cold start, in combination with a new unique oxygen-sensor installation, catalyst control is started extremely early.
Technical Paper

The Volvo 5-Cylinder Engine with 4-Valve Technology - A New Member of Volvos Modular Engine Family

1991-09-01
911906
During 1991 Volvo Car Corporation has introduced the new Volvo 850 GLT model featuring front wheel drive with transverse installation of the engine and gearbox. The powertrain; consists of a new in-line five-cylinder engine in combination with a four speed electronically controlled automatic gearbox or a five speed manual gearbox. The engine features DOHC 20 valves, V-VIS (Volvo Variable Induction System), well tuned exhaust system and microprocessor controlled engine management systems. The engine was designed and developed as a new member of Volvo's modular engine family. The first member was the in-line six-cylinder engine B6304F [1] introduced in 1990. The modular engines have a large number of identical components and the major components are machined in common transfer lines which makes the manufacturing process highly rational and cost-effective.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Using the Ion-Current Signal for Optimizing Engine Stability - Comparisons of Lean and EGR (Stoichiometric) Operation

2003-03-03
2003-01-0717
Ion current measurements can give information useful for controlling the combustion stability in a multi-cylinder engine. Operation near the dilution limit (air or EGR) can be achieved and it can be optimized individually for the cylinders, resulting in a system with better engine stability for highly diluted mixtures. This method will also compensate for engine wear, e.g. changes in volumetric efficiency and fuel injector characteristics. Especially in a port injected engine, changes in fuel injector characteristics can lead to increased emissions and deteriorated engine performance when operating with a closed-loop lambda control system. One problem using the ion-current signal to control engine stability near the lean limit is the weak signal resulting in low signal to noise ratio. Measurements presented in this paper were made on a turbocharged 9.6 liter six cylinder natural gas engine with port injection.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Late In-Cylinder Air Injection on In-Cylinder Flow Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

2001-09-24
2001-01-3492
During development of an air assisted, direct injection combustion system, it was found that an air pulse during the late part of compression stroke significantly shortened the combustion duration and extended the lean limits of the engine. The effect of an injection of pure air through an air assist direct injector was studied with Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV. Results showed that an air pulse during the compression stroke significantly speeded up in-cylinder velocities, which also was showed in the heat release analysis. A system to use low density seeding particles was developed and is presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

The Influence of PRF and Commercial Fuels with High Octane Number on the Auto-ignition Timing of an Engine Operated in HCCI Combustion Mode with Negative Valve Overlap

2004-06-08
2004-01-1967
A single-cylinder engine was operated in HCCI combustion mode with different kinds of commercial fuels. The HCCI combustion was generated by creating a negative valve overlap (early exhaust valve closing combined with late intake valve opening) thus trapping a large amount of residuals (∼ 55%). Fifteen different fuels with high octane numbers were tested six of which were primary reference fuels (PRF's) and nine were commercial fuels or reference fuels. The engine was operated at constant operational parameters (speed/load, valve timing and equivalence ratio, intake air temperature, compression ratio, etc.) changing only the fuel type while the engine was running. Changing the fuel affected the auto-ignition timing, represented by the 50% mass fraction burned location (CA50). However these changes were not consistent with the classical RON and MON numbers, which are measures of the knock resistance of the fuel. Indeed, no correlation was found between CA50 and the RON or MON numbers.
Technical Paper

The Influence of EGR on Heat Release Rate and NO Formation in a DI Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1807
Exhaust Gas Recirculation, EGR, is one of the most effective means of reducing NOx emissions from diesel engines and is likely to be used in order to meet future emissions standards. Exhaust gases can either be used to replace some of the air that enters the engine or can be added to the intake flow. The former case has been studied in this paper. One advantage of air replacement is that the exhaust mass flow is reduced in addition to the decreased NOx formation. The objective of this study has been to take a closer look at the factors affecting NOx emissions at different EGR rates. This is done by combining heat release analysis, based on measured pressure traces and NO formation in a multi zone combustion model. The model used is an improved version of an earlier presented model [1]. One feature in the new model is the possibility to separate the NO formation during the premixed combustion from NO formed during the diffusive combustion.
Technical Paper

The Inflatable Curtain (IC) - A New Head Protection System in Side Impacts

1998-05-31
986180
Car accident investigations have shown that the head, the chest and the abdomen are the three most vulnerable body regions in side impacts, when serious-to-fatal (MAIS 3-6) injuries are considered. Injuries are much more common to occupants seated on the struck side than to those on the non-struck side. The development of new side impact protection systems has therefore been focused on struck side occupants. The first airbag system for side impact protection, jointly developed by Volvo and Autoliv, was introduced on the market in 1994. The SIPS bag is seat-mounted and protects mainly the chest and the abdomen, and also to some extent the head, since the head's lateral relative displacement is reduced by the side airbag, thereby keeping the head inside the car's outer profile. However, if an external object is exposed in the head area, for example in a truck-to-car side impact or in a single car collision into a pole or a tree, there is a need for an additional head protection device.
Technical Paper

The Importance of High-Frequency, Small-Eddy Turbulence in Spark Ignited, Premixed Engine Combustion

1995-10-01
952409
The different roles played by small and large eddies in engine combustion were studied. Experiments compared natural gas combustion in a converted, single cylinder Volvo TD 102 engine and in a 125 mm cubical cell. Turbulence is used to enhance flame growth, ideally giving better efficiency and reduced cyclic variation. Both engine and test cell results showed that flame growth rate correlated best with the level of high frequency, small eddy turbulence. The more effective, small eddy turbulence also tended to lower cyclic variations. Large scales and bulk flows convected the flame relative to cool surfaces and were most important to the initial flame kernel.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Wheel Design on the Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0662
Approximately 25 % of a passenger vehicle’s aerodynamic drag comes directly or indirectly from its wheels, indicating that the rim geometry is highly relevant for increasing the vehicle’s overall energy efficiency. An extensive experimental study is presented where a parametric model of the rim design was developed, and statistical methods were employed to isolate the aerodynamic effects of certain geometric rim parameters. In addition to wind tunnel force measurements, this study employed the flowfield measurement techniques of wake surveys, wheelhouse pressure measurements, and base pressure measurements to investigate and explain the most important parameters’ effects on the flowfield. In addition, a numerical model of the vehicle with various rim geometries was developed and used to further elucidate the effects of certain geometric parameters on the flow field.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Strategy on In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion

1996-02-01
960582
This study is focused on the effect of different valve strategies on the in-cylinder flow and combustion A conventional four-valve pentroof engine was modified to enable optical access to the combustion chamber To get information on the flow, a two-component LDV system was applied The combustion was monitored by the use of cylinder pressure in a one-zone heat release model The results show that the flow in the cylinder with the valves operating in the standard configuration has an expected tumble characteristic In this case the high frequency turbulence is homogeneous and has a peak approximately 20 CAD BTDC With one valve deactivated, the flow shows a swirling pattern The turbulence is then less homogeneous but the level of turbulence is increased When the single inlet valve was phased late against the crankshaft dramatic effects on the flow resulted The late inlet valve opening introduced a low cylinder pressure before the valve opened The high pressure difference across the valve introduced a high-velocity jet into the cylinder Turbulence was increased by a factor of two by this operational mode When two inlet valves were used, a reduction of turbulence resulted from a very late inlet cam phase
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