Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery from Multiple Heat Sources in a HD Truck Diesel Engine Using a Rankine Cycle - A Theoretical Evaluation

2012-09-10
2012-01-1602
Few previous publications investigate the possibility of combining multiple waste heat sources in a combustion engine waste heat recovery system. A waste heat recovery system for a HD truck diesel engine is evaluated for utilizing multiple heat sources found in a conventional HD diesel engine. In this type of engine more than 50% of heat energy goes futile. The majority of the heat energy is lost through engine exhaust and cooling devices such as EGRC (Exhaust gas recirculation cooler), CAC (Charge air cooler) and engine cooling. In this paper, the potential of usable heat recuperation from these devices using thermodynamic analysis was studied, and also an effort is made to recuperate most of the available heat energy that would otherwise be lost. A well-known way of recuperating this heat energy is by employing a Rankine cycle circuit with these devices as heat sources (single loop or dual loop), and thus this study is focused on using a Rankine cycle for the heat recovery system.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

2007-07-23
2007-01-1883
A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.
Technical Paper

The Usefulness of Negative Valve Overlap for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC

2012-09-10
2012-01-1578
Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low.
Technical Paper

The Relevance of Different Fuel Indices to Describe Autoignition Behaviour of Gasoline in Light Duty DICI Engine under PPC Mode

2019-04-02
2019-01-1147
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) with gasoline fuels is a new promising combustion concept for future internal combustion engines. However, many researchers have argued the capabilities of research octane number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) to describe the autoignition behaviour of gasoline fuels in advanced combustion concepts like PPC. The objective of this study is to propose a new method, called PPC number, to characterize the auto ignition quality of gasoline fuels in a light-duty direct injected compression ignition engine under PPC conditions. The experimental investigations were performed on a 4-cylinder Volvo D4 2 litre engine. The ignition delay which was defined as the crank angle degrees between the start of injection (SOI) and start of combustion (SOC) was used to represent the auto ignition quality of a fuel.
Technical Paper

The Potential of SNCR Based NOx Reduction in a Double Compression Expansion Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1128
Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR), used to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), has been a well-established technology in the power plant industry for several decades. The SNCR technique is an aftertreatment strategy based on thermal reduction of NOx at high temperatures. In the compression ignition engine application, the technology has not been applicable due to low exhaust temperatures, which makes the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system essential for efficient nitrogen oxide reduction to fulfill the environment legislation. For a general Double Compression Expansion Engine (DCEE) the complete expansion cycle is split in two separate cycles, i.e. the engine is a split cycle engine. In the first cylinder the combustion occurs and in the second stage the combustion gas is introduced and further expanded in a low-pressure expansion cylinder. The combustion cylinder is connected with the expansion cylinder through a large insulated high-pressure tank.
Technical Paper

Study on Heat Losses during Flame Impingement in a Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Surface Temperature Measurements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0556
In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines decrease engine efficiency significantly and account for approximately 14-19% [1, 2, 3] of the injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the flame impingement onto the piston. Therefore, the present study investigates the heat losses during flame impingement onto the piston bowl wall experimentally. The measurements were performed on a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the flame was determined by evaluating a phosphor’s temperature dependent emission decay. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to the surface temperature measurements in each cycle. Thus, surface temperature readings could be linked to specific impingement and combustion events.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Visualization of Gasoline and Diesel under Different Ambient Conditions in a Constant Volume Chamber

2013-10-14
2013-01-2547
Spray and combustion of gasoline and diesel were visualized under different ambient conditions in terms of pressure, temperature and density in a constant volume chamber. Three different ambient conditions were selected to simulate the three combustion regimes of homogeneous charge compression ignition, premixed charge compression ignition and conventional combustion. Ambient density was varied from 3.74 to 23.39 kg/m3. Ambient temperature at the spray injection were controlled to the range from 474 to 925 K. Intake oxygen concentration was also modulated from 15 % to 21 % in order to investigate the effects of intake oxygen concentrations on combustion characteristics. The injection pressure of gasoline and diesel were modulated from 50 to 150 MPa to analyze the effect of injection pressure on the spray development and combustion characteristics. Liquid penetration length and vapor penetration length were measured based on the methods of Mie-scattering and Schileren, respectively.
Journal Article

Simultaneous PLIF Imaging of OH and PLII Imaging of Soot for Studying the Late-Cycle Soot Oxidation in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0723
The effects of injection pressure and swirl ratio on the in-cylinder soot oxidation are studied using simultaneous PLIF imaging of OH and LII imaging of soot in an optical diesel engine. Images are acquired after the end of injection in the recirculation zone between two adjacent diesel jets. Scalars are extracted from the images and compared with trends in engine-out soot emissions. The soot emissions decrease monotonically with increasing injection pressure but show a non-linear dependence on swirl ratio. The total amount of OH in the images is negatively correlated with the soot emissions, as is the spatial proximity between the OH and soot regions. This indicates that OH is an important soot oxidizer and that it needs to be located close to the soot to perform this function. The total amount of soot in the images shows no apparent correlation with the soot emissions, indicating that the amount of soot formed is a poor predictor of the emission trends.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Formaldehyde and Fuel-Tracer LIF Imaging in a High-Speed Diesel Engine With Optically Accessible Realistic Combustion Chamber

2005-09-11
2005-24-008
Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a high-speed diesel engine. N-heptane and isooctane were used as fuel and toluene was used as a tracer. This arrangement made it possible to make simultaneous measurements of toluene by exciting at 266 nm and detecting at 270-320 nm while exciting formaldehyde at 355 nm and detecting at 400-500 nm. The aim of this study is to investigate how traditional fuel tracer and natural-occurring formaldehyde formed in the cool chemistry are transported in the piston bowl. A range of ignition delays were created by running the engine with different amounts of EGR. During this sweep the area where the low-temperature reactions take place were studied. The measurements were performed in a 0.5-l, single-cylinder optical engine running under conditions simulating a cruise-point, i.e., about 2.2 bar imep.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Investigation of Achieving Low Temperature Combustion with Methanol in a Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1152
Low temperature combustion concepts used in compression ignition engines have shown to be able to produce simultaneous reduction of oxides of nitrogen and soot as well as generating higher gross indicated efficiencies compared to conventional diesel combustion. This is achieved by a combination of premixing, dilution and optimization of combustion phasing. Low temperature combustion can be complemented by moving away from fossil fuels in order to reduce the net output of CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels are preferably liquid and of sufficient energy density. As such methanol is proposed as a viable option. This paper reports the results from a simulation based investigation on a heavy-duty multi-cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine with standard compression ratio. The engine was simulated using two different fuels: methanol and gasoline with an octane number of 70.
Technical Paper

Potential ESC Performance of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty PPC Truck Engine: System Simulations based on Single Cylinder Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-0268
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated remarkably high gross indicated engine efficiencies combined with very low engine out emissions. The PPC concept relies on heavy boosting combined with dilution and partial premixing of the charge. The latter is usually achieved with high EGR rates and a separation of the fuel injection from the combustion event. Since more of the produced heat is used for work rather than being wasted with the exhaust gases, concerns have been raised regarding whether it is possible to achieve the required boosting pressures and EGR rates throughout the typical operating regime of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine through turbocharging only. If supercharging would be required its cost in terms of work would mean a substantial loss of the gain in brake efficiencies of the PPC engine over current HD diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Partially Premixed Combustion at High Load using Gasoline and Ethanol, a Comparison with Diesel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0944
This paper is the follow up of a previous work and its target is to demonstrate that the best fuel for a Compression Ignition engine has to be with high Octane Number. An advanced injection strategy was designed in order to run Gasoline in a CI engine. At high load it consisted in injecting 54 % of the fuel very early in the pilot and the remaining around TDC; the second injection is used as ignition trigger and an appropriate amount of cool EGR has to be used in order to avoid pre-ignition of the pilot. Substantially lower NOx, soot and specific fuel consumption were achieved at 16.56 bar gross IMEP as compared to Diesel. The pressure rise rate did not constitute any problem thanks to the stratification created by the main injection and a partial overlap between start of the combustion and main injection. Ethanol gave excellent results too; with this fuel the maximum load was limited at 14.80 bar gross IMEP because of hardware issues.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of the Effect of Pilot Quantity, Combustion Phasing and EGR on Efficiencies of a Gasoline PPC Light-Duty Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0084
In this paper, a parametric analysis on the main engine calibration parameters applied on gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is performed. Theoretically, the PPC concept permits to improve both the engine efficiencies and the NOx-soot trade-off simultaneously compared to the conventional diesel combustion. This work is based on the design of experiments (DoE), statistical approach, and investigates on the engine calibration parameters that might affect the efficiencies and the emissions of a gasoline PPC. The full factorial DoE analysis based on three levels and three factors (33 factorial design) is performed at three engine operating conditions of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). The pilot quantity (Qpil), the crank angle position when 50% of the total heat is released (CA50), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) factors are considered. The goal is to identify an engine calibration with high efficiency and low emissions.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation on the Combustion Process Differences between Double-Pilot and Closely-Coupled Triple-Pilot Injection Strategies in a LD Diesel Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0022
The combustion processes of three injection strategies in a light-duty (LD) diesel engine at a medium load point are captured with a high speed video camera. A double-pilot/main/single-post injection strategy representative of a LD Euro 6 calibration is considered as the reference. There is a modest temporal spacing (dwell) after the first pilot (P1) and second pilot (P2). A second strategy, “A,” adds a third pilot (P3). The dwell after both P2 and P3 are several times shorter than in the reference strategy. A third strategy, “B,” further reduces all dwells. Each injection has its own associated local peak in the heat release rate (HRR) following some ignition delay. Between these peaks lie local minima, or dips. In all three cases, the fuel from P1 combusts as a propagating premixed flame. For all strategies, the ignition of P2 primarily occurs at its interface with the existing combustion regions.
Technical Paper

On the Use of Force Feedback for Cost Efficient Robotic Drilling

2007-09-17
2007-01-3909
Drilling is one of the most costly and labour-intensive operations in aircraft assembly. Rather than automating with expensive fixtures and precise machinery, our approach is to make use of standard low-cost robot equipment in combination with sensor feedback. The focus is to eliminate the sliding movement of the end-effector during the clamp-up, called the skating effect, and to keep the end-effector orthogonal to the surface, thus avoiding holes that are not perpendicular. To that end, force feedback is used for building up pressure to clamp up an end-effector to the work-piece surface prior to drilling. The system, including the planning of force parameters for each hole to be drilled, was programmed in DELMIA. The drilling was accomplished with the aid of an extension to the ABB Rapid language called ExtRapid, which is an XML-like code that is interpreted by the force feedback controller downstream in the process.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the ECN Spray A Using Multidimensional Chemistry Coordinate Mapping: n-Dodecane Diesel Combustion

2012-09-10
2012-01-1660
A three dimensional numerical simulation of the ECN “Spray A” is presented. Both primary and secondary breakup of the spray are included. The fuel is n-Dodecane. The n-Dodecane kinetic mechanism is modeled using a skeletal mechanism that consists of 103 species and 370 reactions [9]. The kinetic mechanism is computationally heavy when coupled with three dimensional numerical simulations. Multidimensional chemistry coordinate mapping (CCM) approach is used to speedup the simulation. CCM involves two-way mapping between CFD cells and a discretized multidimensional thermodynamic space, the so called multidimensional chemistry coordinate space. In the text, the cells in the discretized multidimensional thermodynamic space are called zone to discriminate them from the CFD cells. In this way, the CFD cells which are at the similar thermodynamic state are identified and grouped into a unique zone. The stiff ODEs operates only on the zones containing at least one CFD cell.
Journal Article

NOx-Conversion Comparison of a SCR-Catalyst Using a Novel Biomimetic Effervescent Injector on a Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0047
NOx pollution from diesel engines has been stated as causing over 10 000 pre-mature deaths annually and predictions are showing that this level will increase [1]. In order to decrease this growing global problem, exhaust after-treatment systems for diesel engines have to be improved, this is especially so for vehicles carrying freight as their use of diesel engines is expected to carry on into the future [2]. The most common way to reduce diesel engine NOx out emissions is to use SCR. SCR operates by injecting aqueous Urea solution, 32.5% by volume (AUS-32), that evaporates prior the catalytic surface of the SCR-catalyst. Due to a catalytic reaction within the catalyst, NOx is converted nominally into Nitrogen and Water. Currently, the evaporative process is enhanced by aggressive mixer plates and long flow paths.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Intake CO2-level during Load Transients on a 1-Cylinder Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0039
For diesel engines the major exhaust problem is particulate matter and NOx emissions. To reduce NOx, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is often used. The behavior of the EGR-level will therefore influence the emissions and it is therefore valuable to keep track of the EGR-level. Especially during transients it is difficult to predict how the EGR-level varies. In this paper the CO2-level in the intake is modeled on a 1-cylinder diesel engine to predict the in cylinder behavior during transients. The model is based on simple thermodynamics together with the ideal gas law. Using this, the model is validated by experimental data during transients and the correlation between model and experiment is shown to be strong. Furthermore, the total tank volume is decreased to achieve a faster mixing with the intention of simulating the behavior of the CO2-level in a full-size engine which has a higher gas flow.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms of Post-Injection Soot-Reduction Revealed by Visible and Diffused Back-Illumination Soot Extinction Imaging

2018-04-03
2018-01-0232
Small closely-coupled post injections of fuel in diesel engines are known to reduce engine-out soot emissions, but the relative roles of various underlying in-cylinder mechanisms have not been established. Furthermore, the efficacy of soot reduction is not universal, and depends in unclear ways on operating conditions and injection schedule, among other factors. Consequently, designing engine hardware and operating strategies to fully realize the potential of post-injections is limited by this lack of understanding. Following previous work, several different post-injection schedules are investigated using a single-cylinder 2.34 L heavy-duty optical engine equipped with a Delphi DFI 1.5 light-duty injector. In this configuration, adding a closely-coupled post injection with sufficiently short injection duration can increase the load without increasing soot emissions.
X