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Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Journal Article

Transition from HCCI to PPC: Investigation of Fuel Distribution by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF)

2017-03-28
2017-01-0748
In a previous study, in order to investigate the effect of charge stratification on combustion behavior such as combustion efficiency and combustion phasing which also largely affects the emissions, an experiment was conducted in a heavy-duty compression ignition (CI) metal engine. The engine behavior and emission characteristics were studied in the transition from HCCI mode to PPC mode by varying the start of injection (SOI) timing. To gain more detailed information of the mixing process, in-cylinder laser diagnostic measurements, namely fuel-tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging, were conducted in an optical version of the heavy-duty CI engine mentioned above. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time to perform fuel-tracer PLIF measurements in an optical engine with a close to production bowl in piston combustion chamber, under transition conditions from HCCI to PPC mode.
Journal Article

The Influence of Fuel Properties on Transient Liquid-Phase Spray Geometry and on Cl-Combustion Characteristics

2009-11-02
2009-01-2774
A transparent HSDI CI engine was used together with a high speed camera to analyze the liquid phase spray geometry of the fuel types: Swedish environmental class 1 Diesel fuel (MK1), Soy Methyl Ester (B100), n-Heptane (PRF0) and a gas-to-liquid derivate (GTL) with a distillation range similar to B100. The study of the transient liquid-phase spray propagation was performed at gas temperatures and pressures typical for start of injection conditions of a conventional HSDI CI engine. Inert gas was supplied to the transparent engine in order to avoid self-ignition at these cylinder gas conditions. Observed differences in liquid phase spray geometry were correlated to relevant fuel properties. An empirical relation was derived for predicting liquid spray cone angle and length prior to ignition.
Journal Article

Simultaneous PLIF Imaging of OH and PLII Imaging of Soot for Studying the Late-Cycle Soot Oxidation in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0723
The effects of injection pressure and swirl ratio on the in-cylinder soot oxidation are studied using simultaneous PLIF imaging of OH and LII imaging of soot in an optical diesel engine. Images are acquired after the end of injection in the recirculation zone between two adjacent diesel jets. Scalars are extracted from the images and compared with trends in engine-out soot emissions. The soot emissions decrease monotonically with increasing injection pressure but show a non-linear dependence on swirl ratio. The total amount of OH in the images is negatively correlated with the soot emissions, as is the spatial proximity between the OH and soot regions. This indicates that OH is an important soot oxidizer and that it needs to be located close to the soot to perform this function. The total amount of soot in the images shows no apparent correlation with the soot emissions, indicating that the amount of soot formed is a poor predictor of the emission trends.
Technical Paper

Optical Study of Fuel Spray Penetration and Initial Combustion Location under PPC Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0752
Low temperature combustion modes, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), have been researched over recent decades since the concepts show promise for high efficiency and low emissions compared to conventional diesel combustion. PPC is an intermediate combustion type ranging from HCCI-like combustion to diesel-like combustion. The purpose of this paper is to study optically how the combustion and ignition are affected by different start of injection (SOI) timings. The study is carried out in an optically accessible heavy-duty single-cylinder engine with swirl. The intake pressure was kept constant while the intake temperature was varied to keep the combustion phasing (CA50) constant at ∼3 CAD atdc during an SOI sweep. The fuel used is a mix of primary reference fuels with octane number 81. To determine where the combustion starts, high-speed combustion imaging is used to detect the natural luminosity.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation on the Combustion Process Differences between Double-Pilot and Closely-Coupled Triple-Pilot Injection Strategies in a LD Diesel Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0022
The combustion processes of three injection strategies in a light-duty (LD) diesel engine at a medium load point are captured with a high speed video camera. A double-pilot/main/single-post injection strategy representative of a LD Euro 6 calibration is considered as the reference. There is a modest temporal spacing (dwell) after the first pilot (P1) and second pilot (P2). A second strategy, “A,” adds a third pilot (P3). The dwell after both P2 and P3 are several times shorter than in the reference strategy. A third strategy, “B,” further reduces all dwells. Each injection has its own associated local peak in the heat release rate (HRR) following some ignition delay. Between these peaks lie local minima, or dips. In all three cases, the fuel from P1 combusts as a propagating premixed flame. For all strategies, the ignition of P2 primarily occurs at its interface with the existing combustion regions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Methanol Ignition Sequence in an Optical PPC Engine with Multiple Injection Strategies

2019-09-09
2019-24-0007
Methanol is a genuine candidate on the alternative fuel market for internal combustion engines, especially within the heavy-duty transportation sector. Partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine concept, known for its high efficiency and low emission rates, can be promoted further with methanol fuel due to its unique thermo-physical properties. The low stoichiometric air to fuel ratio allows to utilize late injection timings, which reduces the wall-wetting effects, and thus can lead to less unburned hydrocarbons. Moreover, combustion of methanol as an alcohol fuel, is free from soot emissions, which allows to extend the operation range of the engine. However, due to the high latent heat of vaporization, the ignition event requires a high inlet temperature to achieve ignition event. In this paper LES simulations together with experimental measurements on an heavy-duty optical engine are used to study methanol PPC engine.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms of Post-Injection Soot-Reduction Revealed by Visible and Diffused Back-Illumination Soot Extinction Imaging

2018-04-03
2018-01-0232
Small closely-coupled post injections of fuel in diesel engines are known to reduce engine-out soot emissions, but the relative roles of various underlying in-cylinder mechanisms have not been established. Furthermore, the efficacy of soot reduction is not universal, and depends in unclear ways on operating conditions and injection schedule, among other factors. Consequently, designing engine hardware and operating strategies to fully realize the potential of post-injections is limited by this lack of understanding. Following previous work, several different post-injection schedules are investigated using a single-cylinder 2.34 L heavy-duty optical engine equipped with a Delphi DFI 1.5 light-duty injector. In this configuration, adding a closely-coupled post injection with sufficiently short injection duration can increase the load without increasing soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Lift-Off Lengths in an Optical Heavy-Duty Engine Operated at High Load with Low and High Octane Number Fuels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0245
The influence of the ignition quality of diesel-and gasoline-like fuels on the lift-off length of the jet were investigated in an optical heavy duty engine. The engine was operated at a load of 22 bar IMEPg and 1200 rpm. A production type injector with standard holes were used. The lift-off length was recorded with high speed video Different injection pressures and inlet temperatures were used to affect conditions that consequently affect the lift-off length. No matter which fuel used nor injection pressure or inlet temperature, all lift-off lengths showed equal or close to equal lift-off length when stabilized. The higher octane fuel had a longer ignition delay and therefore the fuel penetrate the combustion chamber before auto ignition. This gave a longer lift-off length at the initial stage of combustion before reaching the same stabilized lift-off length. These results indicate that the hot combustion gases are a dominant factor to the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Differences in Engine Efficiency with Regard to Fuel Volatility and Engine Load

2008-10-06
2008-01-2385
An HSDI Diesel engine was fuelled with standard Swedish environmental class 1 Diesel fuel (MK1), Soy methyl ester (B100) and n-heptane (PRF0) to study the effects of both operating conditions and fuel properties on engine performance, resulting emissions and spray characteristics. All experiments were based on single injection diesel combustion. A load sweep was carried out between 2 and 10 bar IMEPg. For B100, a loss in combustion efficiency as well as ITE was observed at low load conditions. Observed differences in exhaust emissions were related to differences in mixing properties and spray characteristics. For B100, the emission results differed strongest at low load conditions but converged to MK1-like results with increasing load and increasing intake pressures. For these cases, spray geometry calculations indicated a longer spray tip penetration length. For low-density fuels (PRF0) the spray spreading angle was higher.
Technical Paper

Interaction between Fuel Jets and Prevailing Combustion During Closely-Coupled Injections in an Optical LD Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0551
Two imaging techniques are used to investigate the interaction between developed combustion from earlier injections and partially oxidized fuel (POF) of a subsequent injection. The latter is visualized by using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High speed imaging captures the natural luminescence (NL) of the prevailing combustion. Three different fuel injection strategies are studied. One strategy consists of two pilot injections, with modest separations after each, followed by single main and post injections. Both of the other two strategies have three pilots followed by single main and post injections. The separations after the second and third pilots are several times shorter than in the reference case (making them closely-coupled). The closely-coupled cases have more linear heat release rates (HRR) which lead to much lower combustion noise levels.
Technical Paper

Influence of Spray-Target and Squish Height on Sources of CO and UHC in a HSDI Diesel Engine During PPCI Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2810
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging during the expansion stroke, exhaust gas emissions, and cylinder pressure measurements were used to investigate the influence on combustion and CO/UHC emissions of variations in squish height and fuel spray targeting on the piston. The engine was operated in a highly dilute, partially premixed, low-temperature combustion mode. A small squish height and spray targeting low on the piston gave the lowest exhaust emissions and most rapid heat release. The LIF data show that both the near-nozzle region and the squish volume are important sources of UHC emissions, while CO is dominated by the squish region and is more abundant near the piston top. Emissions from the squish volume originate primarily from overly lean mixture. At the 3 bar load investigated, CO and UHC levels in mixture leaving the bowl and ring-land crevice are low.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison of Heat Losses in Stepped-Bowl and Re-Entrant Combustion Chambers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0732
Heat loss is one of the greatest energy losses in engines. More than half of the heat is lost to cooling media and exhaust losses, and they thus dominate the internal combustion engine energy balance. Complex processes affect heat loss to the cylinder walls, including gas motion, spray-wall interaction and turbulence levels. The aim of this work was to experimentally compare the heat transfer characteristics of a stepped-bowl piston geometry to a conventional re-entrant diesel bowl studied previously and here used as the baseline geometry. The stepped-bowl geometry features a low surface-to-volume ratio compared to the baseline bowl, which is considered beneficial for low heat losses. Speed, load, injection pressure, swirl level, EGR rate and air/fuel ratio (λ) were varied in a multi-cylinder light duty engine operated in conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode.
Technical Paper

Effects of Post-Injections Strategies on UHC and CO at Gasoline PPC Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Optical Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0753
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown potential in terms of high efficiency with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot. Despite these benefits, emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main shortcomings of the concept. These are caused, among other things, by overlean zones near the injector tip and injector dribble. Previous diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) research has demonstrated post injections to be an effective strategy to mitigate these emissions. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of post injections on CO and UHC emissions in a quiescent (non-swirling) combustion system. A blend of primary reference fuels, PRF87, having properties similar to US pump gasoline was used at PPC conditions in a heavy duty optical engine. The start of the main injection was maintained constant. Dwell and mass repartition between the main and post injections were varied to evaluate their effect.
Journal Article

Effects of Post-Injection Strategies on Near-Injector Over-Lean Mixtures and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emission in a Heavy-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1383
Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Technical Paper

Effect of Jet-Jet Interactions on the Liquid Fuel Penetration in an Optical Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1615
The liquid phase penetration of diesel sprays under reacting conditions is measured in an optical heavy-duty Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. Hot gas reservoirs along the diffusion flames have previously been shown to affect the liftoff length on multi hole nozzles. The aim of this study is to see if they also affect the liquid length. The inter-jet spacing is varied together with the Top Dead Center density and the inlet temperature. To avoid unwanted interferences from the natural flame luminosity the illumination wavelength is blue shifted from the black body radiation spectrum and set to 448 nm. Filtered Mie scattered light from the fuel droplets is recorded with a high speed camera. The liquid fuel penetration is evaluated from the start of injection to the quasi steady phase of the jets. Knowledge of jet-jet interaction effects is of interest for transferring fundamental understanding from combustion vessels to practical engine applications.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on the Ignition and Mode of Combustion in a HD PPC Engine Running Low Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0211
This work aims to study the effect of fuel inhomogeneity on the ignition process and subsequent combustion in a compression ignition Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF) in low load conditions. Five cases with injection timings ranging from the start of injection (SOI) at -70 crank angle degrees (CAD) to -17 CAD have been studied numerically and experimentally in a heavy duty (HD) piston bowl geometry. Intake temperature is adjusted to keep the combustion phasing constant. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed in a closed cycle sector domain using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation with k-ϵ turbulence closure and direct coupling of finite rate chemistry. The results are compared with engine experiments. The predicted trends in required intake temperature and auto-ignition location for a constant combustion phasing are consistent with experiments.
Journal Article

Diesel Spray Ignition Detection and Spatial/Temporal Correction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1239
Methods for detection of the spatial position and timing of diesel ignition with improved accuracy are demonstrated in an optically accessible constant-volume chamber at engine-like pressure and temperature conditions. High-speed pressure measurement using multiple transducers, followed by triangulation correction for the speed of the pressure wave, permits identification of the autoignition spatial location and timing. Simultaneously, high-speed Schlieren and broadband chemiluminescence imaging provides validation of the pressure-based triangulation technique. The combined optical imaging and corrected pressure measurement techniques offer improved understanding of diesel ignition phenomenon. Schlieren imaging shows the onset of low-temperature (first-stage) heat release prior to high-temperature (second-stage) ignition. High-temperature ignition is marked by more rapid pressure rise and broadband chemiluminescence.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Laser-Extinction and Natural Luminosity Measurements for Soot Probing in Diesel Optical Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2159
Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work.
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