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Technical Paper

A Catalytic NOX After-Treatment System for Heavy-Duty Trucks Using Diesel Fuel as Reducing Agent

1999-10-25
1999-01-3563
An advanced catalytic exhaust after-treatment system addresses the problem of NOX emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, relying on real-time catalyst modelling. The system consists of de-NOX catalysts, a device for injection of a reducing agent (diesel fuel) upstream the catalysts, and computer programmes to control the injection of the reducing agent and to model the engine and catalysts in real time. Experiments with 5 different air-assisted injectors were performed to determine the effect of injector design on the distribution of the injected diesel in the exhaust gas stream. A two-injector set-up was investigated to determine whether system efficiency could be increased without increasing the amount of catalyst or the amount of reducing agent necessary for the desired outcome. The results were verified by performing European standard transient cycle tests as well as stationary tests.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of WHR System in HD Engines Using Conventional Diesel Combustion and Partially-Premixed Combustion

2012-09-24
2012-01-1930
In the truck industry there is a continuous demand to increase the efficiency and to decrease the emissions. To acknowledge both these issues a waste heat recovery system (WHR) is combined with a partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine to deliver an efficient engine system. Over the past decades numerous attempts to increase the thermal efficiency of the diesel engine has been made. One such attempt is the PPC concept that has demonstrated potential for substantially increased thermal efficiency combined with much reduced emission levels. So far most work on increasing engine efficiency has been focused on improving the thermal efficiency of the engine while WHR, which has an excellent potential for another 1-5 % fuel consumption reduction, has not been researched that much yet. In this paper a WHR system using a Rankine cycle has been developed in a modeling environment using IPSEpro.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Analysis of the Roles of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2535
Emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces are used to compare the relative importance of soot formation and soot oxidation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The equivalence ratio at the lift-off length is estimated with an empirical correlation and an idealized model of diesel spray. No correlation is found between the equivalence ratio at lift-off and the soot emissions. This confirms that trends in soot emissions cannot be directly understood by the soot formation process. The coupling between soot emission levels and late heat release after end of injection is also studied. A regression model describing soot emissions as function of global engine parameters influencing soot oxidation is proposed. Overall, the results of this analysis indicate that soot emissions can be understood in terms of the efficiency of the oxidation process.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0098
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating in a fumigated dual-fuel mode, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. This engine technology allows reducing engine-out emissions while maintaining the engine efficiency and can be fairly easily retrofitted from current diesel engines. The main premixed fuel that is added can be a low-carbon one and can additionally be of a renewable nature, thereby reducing or even completely removing the global warming impact. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large marine engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel.
Technical Paper

A Droplet Size Investigation and Comparison Using a Novel Biomimetic Flash-Boiling Injector for AdBlue Injections

2016-10-17
2016-01-2211
Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower the fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide [1]. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro I) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro VI) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip which increase the challenge of exhaust aftertreatment with a SCR system. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of Urea solution needs to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
Journal Article

A Fast Crank Angle Resolved Zero-Dimensional NOx Model Implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array

2013-04-08
2013-01-0344
In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO , during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas composition. The model was implemented in LabVIEW using tools specific for an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array).
Technical Paper

A Machine Learning Approach to Information Extraction from Cylinder Pressure Sensors

2012-04-16
2012-01-0440
As the number of actuators and sensors increases in modern combustion engines, the task of optimizing engine performance becomes increasingly complex. Efficient information processing techniques are therefore important, both for off-line calibration of engine maps, and on-line adjustments based on sensor data. In-cylinder pressure sensors are slowly spreading from laboratory use to production engines, thus making data with high temporal resolution of the combustion process available. The standard way of using the cylinder pressure data for control and diagnostics is to focus on a few important physical features extracted from the pressure trace, such as the combustion phasing CA50, the indicated mean effective pressure IMEP, and the ignition delay. These features give important information on the combustion process, but much information is lost as the information from the high-resolution pressure trace is condensed into a few key parameters.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Injection-Timing Strategy for Combustion-Timing Control

2015-04-14
2015-01-0870
The combustion timing in internal combustion engines affects the fuel consumption, in-cylinder peak pressure, engine noise and emission levels. The combination of an in-cylinder pressure sensor together with a direct injection fuel system lends itself well for cycle-to-cycle control of the combustion timing. This paper presents a method of controlling the combustion timing by the use of a cycle-to-cycle injection-timing algorithm. At each cycle the currently estimated heat-release rate is used to predict the in-cylinder pressure change due to a combustion-timing shift. The prediction is then used to obtain a cycle-to-cycle model that relates combustion timing to gross indicated mean effective pressure, max pressure and max pressure derivative. Then the injection timing that controls the combustion timing is decided by solving an optimization problem involving the model obtained.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Sensitivity of Soot and NOx Formation to the Operating Conditions in Heavy Duty Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0177
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to describe the effect of flow parameters on the formation of soot and NOx in a heavy duty engine under low load and high load. The complexity of diesel combustion, specially when soot, NOx and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Multiple Representative Interactive Flamelets (MRIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. A phenomenological model for soot formation, including soot nucleation, coagulation and oxidation with O2 and OH is incorporated into the flamelet combustion model. Different strategies for modelling NOx are chosen to take into account the longer time scale for NOx formation. The numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the model for the cases under study.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3329
A previously presented robust and fast diagnostic NOx model was modified into a predictive model. This was done by using simple yet physically-based models for fuel injection, ignition delay, premixed heat release rate and diffusion combustion heat release rate. The model can be used both for traditional high temperature combustion and for high-EGR low temperature combustion. It was possible to maintain a high accuracy and calculation speed of the NOx model itself. The root mean square of the relative model error is 16 % and the calculation speed is around one second on a PC. Combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, CA50 and the general shape of the heat release rate are well predicted by the combustion model. The model is aimed at real time NOx calculation and optimization in a vehicle on the road.
Technical Paper

A State-Space Simplified SCR Catalyst Model for Real Time Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0616
The use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is becoming increasingly more popular as a way of reducing NOx emissions from heavy duty vehicles while maintaining competitive operating costs. In order to make efficient use of these systems, it's important to have a complete system approach when it comes to calibration of the engine and aftertreatment system. This paper presents a simplified model of a heavy duty SCR catalyst, primarily intended for use in combination with an engine-out emissions model to perform model based offline optimization of the complete system. The traditional way of modelling catalysts using a dense discretization of the catalyst channels and non-linear differential equation solvers to solve the heat and mass balance equations, requires too much computational power in this application. The presented model is also useful in other applications such as model based control.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

2013-10-14
2013-01-2603
The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effect of Elevated Coolant Temperatures on HD Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2223
In recent years, stricter regulations on emissions and higher demands for more fuel efficient vehicles have led to a greater focus on increasing the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Nowadays, there is increasing interest in the recovery of waste heat from different engine sources such as the coolant and exhaust gases using, for example, a Rankine cycle. In diesel engines 15% to 30% of the energy from the fuel can be lost to the coolant and hence, does not contribute to producing work on the piston. This paper looks at reducing the heat losses to the coolant by increasing coolant temperatures within a single cylinder Scania D13 engine and studying the effects of this on the energy balance within the engine as well as the combustion characteristics. To do this, a GT Power model was first validated against experimental data from the engine.
Technical Paper

Advanced Two-Actuator EUI and Emission Reduction for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0698
A very flexible choice of fuel injection characteristics can be obtained with an advanced electronic unit injector that has been developed with two electronically controlled valves. Single-cylinder engine tests have demonstrated the potential of this advanced EUI system for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Substantial increases in injection pressure can be programmed electronically at individual engine speed/load conditions, compared with a baseline EUI system, to provide much faster rates of air/fuel mixing. Simulated US and European emissions cycle results, with the optimised two-actuator EUI and EGR, show substantially improved soot particulate versus NOx results and lower BSFC compared with a baseline EUI result. A high-pressure post injection has the potential to give further soot reduction.
Journal Article

Air-Entrainment in Wall-Jets Using SLIPI in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1718
Mixing in wall-jets was investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine with several injector configurations and injection pressures. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was employed in non-reacting conditions in order to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratios in colliding wall-jets. A novel laser diagnostic technique, Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging (SLIPI), was successfully implemented in an optical engine and permits to differentiate LIF signal from multiply scattered light. It was used to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratio in colliding wall-jets under non-reacting conditions. Mixing phenomena in wall-jets were analyzed by comparing the equivalence ratio in the free part of the jet with that in the recirculation zone where two wall-jets collide. These results were then compared to φ predictions for free-jets. It was found that under the conditions tested, increased injection pressure did not increase mixing in the wall-jets.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2198
A Scania 13 1 engine modified for single cylinder operations was run using nine fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline, but very different octane number, together with PRF20 and MK1-diesel. The eleven fuels were tested in a load sweep between 5 and 26 bar gross IMEP at 1250 rpm and also at idle (2.5 bar IMEP, 600 rpm). The boost level was proportional to the load while the inlet temperature was held constant at 303 K. For each fuel the load sweep was terminated if the ignitibility limit was reached. A lower load limit of 15 and 10 bar gross IMEP was found with fuels having an octane number range of 93-100 and 80-89 respectively, while fuels with an octane number below 70 were able to run through the whole load range including idle. A careful selection of boost pressure and EGR in the previously specified load range allowed achieving a gross indicated efficiency between 52 and 55% while NOx ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 g/kWh.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cylinder Engine with Gasoline-Like Fuel towards a High Engine Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-0763
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept with high thermodynamic efficiency and low emission level, and also with minimal modification of standard engine hardware. To use PPC in a production oriented engine, the optimal intake charge conditions for PPC should be included in the analysis. The experiments in this paper investigated and confirmed that the optimal intake conditions of net indicated efficiency for PPC are EGR between 50% and 55% as possible and the lambda close to 1.4. Heat-transfer energy and exhaust gas waste-energy contribute to the majority of the energy loss in the engine. The low EGR region has high heat-transfer and low exhaust gas enthalpy-waste, while the high EGR region has low heat-transfer and high exhaust gas waste-enthalpy. The optimal EGR condition is around 50% where the smallest energy loss is found as a trade-off between heat transfer and exhaust-gas enthalpy-waste.
Journal Article

An In-Cycle based NOx Reduction Strategy using Direct Injection of AdBlue

2014-10-13
2014-01-2817
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Smokeless Spray Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Combined Simultaneous Optical Diagnostics

2009-04-20
2009-01-1353
A heavy duty diesel engine operating case producing no engine-out smoke was studied using combined simultaneous optical diagnostics. The case was close to a typical low load modern diesel operating point without EGR. Parallels were drawn to the conceptual model by Dec and results from high-pressure combustion vessels. Optical results revealed that no soot was present in the upstream part of the jet cross-section. Soot was only observed in the recirculation zones close to the bowl perimeter. This indicated very slow soot formation and was explained by a significantly higher air entrainment rate than in Dec's study. The local fuel-air equivalence ratio, Φ, at the lift-off length was estimated to be 40% of the value in Dec's study. The lower Φ in the jet produced a different Φ -T-history, explaining the soot results. The increased air entrainment rate was mainly due to smaller nozzle holes and increased TDC density.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Surrogate Fuels Effect on Ignition Delay and Low Temperature Reaction during Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0903
Fuel effects on ignition delay and low temperature reactions (LTR) during partially premixed combustion (PPC) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DoE). The test matrix included seventeen mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol covering a broad range of ignition quality and fuel chemistry. Experiments were performed on a light-duty diesel engine at 8 bar IMEPg, 1500 rpm with a variation in combustion phasing, inlet oxygen concentration and injection pressure. A single injection strategy was used and the start of injection and injection duration were adjusted to achieve the desired load and combustion phasing. The experimental data show that fuels with higher Research Octane Number (RON) values generally produced longer ignition delays. In addition, the alcohol content had significantly stronger effect on ignition delay than the aromatic content.
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