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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

1985-11-11
852199
The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery of Passenger Car Using a Combination of Rankine Bottoming Cycle and Evaporative Engine Cooling System

1993-03-01
930880
Rankine bottoming system, which operates on waste heat of engine cooling, has been developped to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. Evaporative engine cooling system is utilized to obtain high thermal efficiency and simplicity of the Rankine bottoming system. The bottoming system uses HCFC123 as a working fluid, and scroll expander as a power conversion unit. The results indicate that energy recovery, which depends on the ambient temperature, is almost 3 percent of engine output power at ambient temperature of 25°C.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery from Multiple Heat Sources in a HD Truck Diesel Engine Using a Rankine Cycle - A Theoretical Evaluation

2012-09-10
2012-01-1602
Few previous publications investigate the possibility of combining multiple waste heat sources in a combustion engine waste heat recovery system. A waste heat recovery system for a HD truck diesel engine is evaluated for utilizing multiple heat sources found in a conventional HD diesel engine. In this type of engine more than 50% of heat energy goes futile. The majority of the heat energy is lost through engine exhaust and cooling devices such as EGRC (Exhaust gas recirculation cooler), CAC (Charge air cooler) and engine cooling. In this paper, the potential of usable heat recuperation from these devices using thermodynamic analysis was studied, and also an effort is made to recuperate most of the available heat energy that would otherwise be lost. A well-known way of recuperating this heat energy is by employing a Rankine cycle circuit with these devices as heat sources (single loop or dual loop), and thus this study is focused on using a Rankine cycle for the heat recovery system.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Drive Line and Suspension Using Finite Element Models

1993-05-01
931306
Finite element aodels have been developed to analyze drive line and suspension vibration. For the analysis of booming noise, we have addressed the optimization of the differential gear carrier mounting system by using a virtual system and realization of it considering many constraints. To reduce the differential whine noise, a simulation method considering the transmitting error of the differential gear was applied. And we have approached for the subtle arrangements of many structural resonances with detail research of the drive line and suspension. For the reduction of road noise, we adopted the approach of shifting the node of the rear suspension member mode.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Innovation with In-Wheel Motor

2011-05-17
2011-39-7204
In-wheel motors (IWM) will be a key technology that contributes to the popularization of electric vehicles. Combining electric drive with IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM is also capable of raising dynamic control performance to an even higher level. IWM enable vertical body motion control as well as direct yaw control, electric skid control, and traction control. This means that IWM can replace most control actuators used in a vehicle chassis. The most important technology for IWM is to enable the motor to coexist with the brake and the suspension arms inside the wheel. The IWM drive unit described in this paper can be installed with a front double wishbone suspension, the most difficult configuration.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Behavior Under the Influence of Steering Dynamics by Means of Low Frequency Torque Input

2006-04-03
2006-01-0557
This paper describes and confirms the effect of low frequency sinusoidal steering torque input on vehicle response and steering behavior using vehicle test, analysis with equations of motion and simulations. The vehicle response by low frequency torque input is quite different to the vehicle response by low frequency steer angle input. Steering system parameters such as moment of inertia, damping, friction and power steering assist torque have an effect on low frequency torque input steering system dynamics. The dynamic response of the vehicle with electric power steering (EPS) system, which has a big moment of inertia with electric motor and friction of the reduction gear, is affected by the steering system dynamic properties. The vehicle response by low frequency torque input test has capability for contribute to vehicle evaluation such as steer feel or maneuverability of handling.
Technical Paper

Unburned Hydro Carbon (HC) Estimation Using a Self-Tuned Heat Release Method

2010-10-25
2010-01-2128
An estimation model which uses the gross heat release data and the fuel energy to estimate the total amount of emissions and unburned Hydro Carbon (HC) is developed. Gross heat release data is calculated from a self-tuned heat release method which uses in-cylinder pressure data for computing the energy released during combustion. The method takes all heat and mass losses into account. The method estimates the polytropic exponent and pressure offset during compression and expansion using a nonlinear least square method. Linear interpolation of polytropic exponent and pressure offset is then performed during combustion to calculate the gross heat release during combustion. Moreover the relations between the emissions specifically HC and Carbon Monoxide (CO) are investigated. The model was validated with experimental data and promising results were achieved.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

2007-07-23
2007-01-1883
A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Diesel Piston Bowl Using Phosphor Thermometry

2009-09-13
2009-24-0033
Phosphor thermometry was used during fuel injection in an optical engine with the glass piston of reentrant type. SiO2 coated phosphor particle was used for the gas-phase temperature measurements, which gave much less background signal. The measurements were performed in motored mode, in combustion mode with injection of n-heptane and in non-combustion mode with injection of iso-octane. In the beginning of injection period, the mean temperature of each injection cases was lower than that of the motored case, and temperature of iso-octane injection cases was even lower than that of n-heptane injection cases. This indicates, even if vaporization effect seemed to be the same at both injection cases, the effect of temperature decrease changed due to the chemical reaction effect for the n-heptane cases. Chemical reaction seems to be initiated outside of the fuel liquid spray and the position was moving towards the fuel rich area as the time proceeds.
Technical Paper

Transition from HCCI to PPC: the Sensitivity of Combustion Phasing to the Intake Temperature and the Injection Timing with and without EGR

2016-04-05
2016-01-0767
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of charge stratification on the combustion phasing in a single cylinder, heavy duty (HD) compression ignition (CI) engine. To do this the start of injection (SOI) was changed from -180° after top dead centre (ATDC) to near top dead centre (TDC) during which CA50 (the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel energy is released) was kept constant by changing the intake temperature. At each SOI, the response of CA50 to a slight increase or decrease of either intake temperature or SOI were also investigated. Afterwards, the experiment was repeated with a different intake oxygen concentration. The results show that, for the whole SOI period, the required intake temperature to keep constant CA50 has a “spoon” shape with the handle on the -180° side.
Journal Article

Transition from HCCI to PPC: Investigation of Fuel Distribution by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF)

2017-03-28
2017-01-0748
In a previous study, in order to investigate the effect of charge stratification on combustion behavior such as combustion efficiency and combustion phasing which also largely affects the emissions, an experiment was conducted in a heavy-duty compression ignition (CI) metal engine. The engine behavior and emission characteristics were studied in the transition from HCCI mode to PPC mode by varying the start of injection (SOI) timing. To gain more detailed information of the mixing process, in-cylinder laser diagnostic measurements, namely fuel-tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging, were conducted in an optical version of the heavy-duty CI engine mentioned above. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time to perform fuel-tracer PLIF measurements in an optical engine with a close to production bowl in piston combustion chamber, under transition conditions from HCCI to PPC mode.
Technical Paper

Transition from HCCI to PPC Combustion by Means of Start of Injection

2015-09-01
2015-01-1790
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a promising way to achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions simultaneously in a heavy-duty engine. Compared to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), it can be controlled by injection events and much lower HC and CO emissions can be achieved. This work focuses on the transition from HCCI to PPC and combustion and emissions characteristics during the process are investigated. Injection strategies, EGR and boost pressure were the main parameters used to present the corresponding effect during the transition.
Technical Paper

Toyota's World First 8-Speed Automatic Transmission for Passenger Cars

2007-04-16
2007-01-1101
TOYOTA has developed the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E) for front-engine, rear-drive passenger cars. The AA80E developed for high-torque engines raises the level of power performance and fuel efficiency. To meet the size requirements needed for mounting in a passenger car application, an 8-speed geartrain, torque converter, transmission case and hydraulic control device were all newly-developed. Furthermore, the AA80E has benefited from technical developments to achieve an extremely high level of quietness and shifting performance. In this paper, the details of the AA80E are introduced.
Technical Paper

Toyota's U340E Four-speed Automatic Transaxle

2000-03-06
2000-01-1147
TOYOTA has designed a new family of automatic transaxles named the “Super ECT”. These are the next generation of automatic transaxles (AT), for FWD passenger cars. The aim of this development was compactness, lightness, and improvements in fuel economy and shift quality. There are several kinds of transaxles included in this group to match each of the FWD passenger cars and engines. The “U340E,” a four-speed automatic transaxle, has been developed as one member of this family. This is one of the most compact and light AT in its class, and has greatly contributed to the fuel economy of vehicles. This paper will give an overview of the “Super ECT” and the major features and performance of the U340E.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Six-Speed Automatic Transmission AB60E for RWD Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1098
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new six-speed automatic transmission AB60E for longitudinal front engine rear wheel drive (RWD) vehicles. This transmission development was aimed at an improvement of power performance and fuel economy, while achieving a lightweight, compact package and a high torque capacity. In order to achieve this target, a high-capacity ultra-flat torque converter, a highly-rigid transmission case, and an ATF warmer with a valve to switch ATF circuits to an air-cooled ATF cooler have been newly developed. Moreover, a new transmission mode control logic “TOW / HAUL” has been developed to improve power performance and driveability during trailer towing. This automatic transmission has adopted the same gear train and hydraulic control system as the conventional six-speed automatic transmission A760E. This paper describes the structure, major features and performance of the transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Six-Speed Automatic Transmission A761E for RWD Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0650
Toyota Motor Corporation has recently developed a new six-speed automatic transmission (A761E) for Front Engine Rear Wheel Drive (FR) vehicles. Following the general trend of increased shift stages and a wider range of gear ratios, this six-speed automatic transmission has been developed with attention paid to the gear steps and a wider range of gear ratios. By balanced selection of close-ratio gears in a wider range, the change greatly improves the power performance and fuel economy of the vehicle. To further improve fuel economy we have adopted new technologies such as low-viscosity ATF, neutral control, and deceleration control by extending the fuel cut range (reset speed). We have also adopted a flat-shaped torque converter, small solenoids, an aluminum oil pump cover, etc. to realize the lightest six-speed automatic transmission in the world.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Six-Speed Automatic Transaxle U660E for FWD Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-0847
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new six-speed automatic transaxle (U660E) for Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicles. Component parts of U660E are completely redesigned. By combining an innovative gear train which Toyota originally invented and newer technologies, U660E has achieved outstanding fuel economy, smooth and quick shift performance and quietness in a lightweight package among Automatic Transaxles (AT) with similar torque capacity.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Integrated Drive Power Control System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1306
Toyota has developed a new system, which uses integrated control of powertrain by PowerTrain Management (PTM), in order to improve driving comfort and reliability. This system is currently in use on Lexus's new LS460. This system is composed of 4 parts: a generation part, a mediating part, a modification part and a distribution part. In each part, processes are based on drive power and torque. In the generation part, requests from a programmed model driver, Driving Support Computer and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) are generated and expressed by drive power. In the mediating part, most suitable vehicle drive power was selected among the requests. In the modification part, the selected request is modified using a programmed powertrain model, which considers internal combustion engine condition and powertrain response and transmission's tolerance. In the distribution part, optimized engine torque and gear ratio are processed.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Generation “Super ECT”(U140E) Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0749
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new four-speed automatic transaxle U140E named “Super ECT”. The U140E has achieved compactness which enables it to mount on many new platforms, achieved high efficiency, which contributes to improve fuel economy, and it achieved good shift feeling, response, and reduce noise. This paper shows the major features and performance of the U140E.
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