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Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics: A New Way of Understanding and Optimizing Vehicle Performance

Evaluation of vehicle performance is one of the most important phases of the new vehicle development. Start Ability and Top Speed are factors that are noticed by users, therefore are very important to the final product. Vehicle performance evaluation has been largely benefited from the use of simulation tools. In fact, MAN Latin America (ML) employs simulation programs to evaluate the performance of its vehicles (trucks and buses) achieving good results. However, those programs are normally “closed codes” which makes difficult the physical comprehension of results. Altogether, this article presents Vehicle Dynamics, a macro developed by ML engineering team. The aim of this macro is the automatic calculation of Start Ability, Grade Ability, Top Speed, among other performance parameters.
Technical Paper

The Use of Simulation for Choosing the Best Automated Manual Transmission: MAN Case Study

Simulations tools like AVL Cruise and Vehicle Dynamics where used to carry on a comparative study between two trucks equipped with automated manual transmissions in two configurations: the original with 12 gears, and a proposal with 16 gears. The original configuration is world-wide used and in this way, the present study was fundamental to decide whether choosing the new proposal would bring the Brazilian option any advantages. In order to evaluate the whole vehicle behavior fuel consumption evaluation and vehicle performance were analyzed. From the present study, it was showed that the 16 gears transmission was the best alternative for the Brazilian application.
Technical Paper

Performance Comparison between ABS 4S/4M and ABS 4S/3M

After the anti-skid brake system (ABS) introduction, mandatory for all vehicles in the Brazilian market, manufacturers have given increasing attention to optimized systems which meet legal and safety requirements. For commercial vehicles, an alternative for the ABS, which presents feasibility, is the configuration 4S/3M (4 wheel-speed sensors and 3 modulator valves) in substitution to the configuration 4S/4M. In other words, application of just one modulator valve to control the brakes of the same axle, front or rear, instead of independent control per each brake of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to present a performance comparison between a brake system fitted with ABS configuration 4S/3M and an ABS configuration 4S/4M. To this end, both configurations were tested on the same vehicle application in accordance with the Brazilian legislation, CONTRAN 519/15.
Technical Paper

Improved Hill Start Aid System for Commercial Vechicles Equipped with Automated Transmission

The higher is the volume of automated transmissions for high load capacity commercial vehicles in the market, the higher is the necessity to develop auxiliary systems capable to reduce the wear of the clutch disc during start-ability performance in slopped plans. The Hill Start Assist System, HSA, is compounded by a set of components in the brake system, disposed in such a way that provides to the driver the possibility of starting to run with comfort and safety by the actuation of the service brakes, without overheating the clutch system and simultaneously avoiding the undesirable effect of composition roll-back. For this, it is only necessary that the vehicle be equipped, besides automated transmission, Anti-lock Braking System, ABS, and an active traction control in, at least, one of the drive axles.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Hydraulic Refuse Truck Evaluation on Performance and Fuel Consumption: 3-Month Tests in the Rio de Janeiro Sanitation Department

In order to evaluate the opportunities to use hybrid concepts for heavy commercial vehicles for emerging markets, MAN Latin America has developed a VW refuse truck with 23t GVW using the hybrid hydraulic technology. The in site vehicle tests measurements has indicated a fuel savings up to 25%, which means a reduction around 4.08 liters of diesel/hour or 20 tones CO2/year [1]. Thus, a collaborative cooperation with Rio de Janeiro Sanitation Department (Comlurb) was set for a truck evaluation on a real operation. This 3-month evaluation used one VW 24.280 6×2 hybrid hydraulic refuse truck and other VW refuse truck similar standard diesel. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles were used in a similar manner. Global positioning system logging, fueling, and maintenance records were used to evaluate the performance of this hybrid hydraulic refuse truck.
Technical Paper

Experimental Tests Evaluation with Biodiesel from Residual Frying Oil - The Case Study of Martin Brower / Mc Donald's Fleet Truck in Brazil

Studies aimed at partial or total use of renewable fuels in diesel engines has increasingly attracted the interest of the automotive industry, in particular due to its characteristics of strength, durability and greater thermal efficiency. The oil esters derived from biological sources, who receive the generic name for biodiesel, is one of the alternatives used internationally. Their physicochemical properties are similar to diesel oil for providing an acceptable dynamic process of preparation and combustion in the engine. This paper presents and evaluates the results of experimental tests carried out in four trucks used exclusively B20 biodiesel (20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel), and one with B100 (pure biodiesel), in real operating conditions.