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Journal Article

Virtual Testing and Correlation for a Motorcycle Design

Two-poster rig plays a very important role in accelerated durability evaluation in a motorcycle industry, similar to what a four-poster rig does in a car industry. The rig simulates the exact road conditions in the vertical direction through tire coupling by applying feedback control on displacement. On account of its ability to simulate to the exact customer usage conditions, it reproduces the failures realistically as it happens on the field. However, as complete vehicle is required for testing on the rig, the testing happens mostly in the advanced stages of product development. Any failures beyond the concept stage have a huge impact on the development time and cost and the same should be avoided. Therefore, in this paper, a virtual testing methodology is proposed, based on which potential failures on the vehicles can be captured at the concept design stage itself. An ADAMS model of a motorcycle was created.
Technical Paper

The Generation of Cyclic Blockloading Test Profiles from Rainflow Histograms

A numerical method for generating a blockloading profile from a rainflow histogram is described. Unlike previous techniques, this method produces a blockloading profile which, when rainflow-counted, yields a rainflow histogram identical to the original. When implemented with modern data acquisition and signal-processing techniques, this generation method provides a means of developing blockloading test profiles which are correlated with actual service data. This key benefit elevates existing simple testing systems as useful and productive tools despite the emrgence of more complex testing systems.
Technical Paper

The Development of Tools for the Automatic Extraction of Desired Information from Large Amounts of Engineering Data

Product development processes generate large quantities of experimental and analytical data. The data evaluation process is usually quite lengthy since the data needs to be extracted from a large number of individual output files and arranged in suitable formats before they can be compared. When the data quantity grows extremely large, manual extraction cannot be done in a limited timeframe. This paper describes a set of tools developed by MTS engineers to automatically extract the desired information from a large number of files and perform data post-processing. The tools greatly improved both speed and accuracy of the evaluation process during the development of a sound quality-based end-of-line inspection system for seat tracks [1]. It allowed engineers to quickly gather a comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of individual design parameters and of their correlation to the subjective perception of the sound quality of the seat track.
Technical Paper

Racing Motorcycle Design Process Using Physical and Virtual Testing Methods

Recently, the use of laboratory-based physical prototype testing as well as the design of virtual models and virtual test equipment has accelerated the pace and quality of racing vehicle development. In particular, the combined use of both virtual and physical testing, when correlated to racetrack improvements, yields a powerful development tool(1), (2),(3). In this study, we applied these techniques from the first stages of the design of a unique Grand Prix racing motorcycle. First, a wire-frame CAD model, then a parametric CAD solid model of the motorcycle was created after preliminary calculations specified the approximate design of structural elements. Subsequently, a virtual dynamic model was created and subjected to a variety of inputs, including sine sweeps, shaped white noise and simulated road time-histories. Loads and other dynamic responses were measured on the virtual model, so that it's design could then be optimized to yield acceptable performance and durability.
Technical Paper

Precision Control Effects on Productivity of Compression Molding

A precision compression molding press, the press controls, and mold temperature control are described. Controllability of the press motion, press force and the mold temperature have a significant impact on reduced cycle time, reduced material costs and reduced scrap in compression molding of “Class A” finish FRP structural panels. Conceptual ideas on automation of the process are presented that can substantially reduce labor costs and increase consistency of molded SMC panels.
Technical Paper

Optimizing-What's That?

The purpose of this paper is to present the past and present concepts of mechanical test optimization, which means the adjustment of a test machine command signal to achieve desired amplitude and mean levels. In particular, the methods of null pacing, dynamic frequency control, classical amplitude control, and maximum velocity limiting / control are discussed along with their respective application areas, advantages and disadvantages. Also, the factors of data verification and over-complication of the test are noted.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Load Transducer Design Using Computer-Based Analytical Tools

Rapid development of advanced multi-axial load transducer systems now requires the use of computer-based analytical tools to assist the development engineer optimize the design to meet often-conflicting design targets. This paper presents a case study based on the development of a wheel force load transducer to meet a challenging set of performance goals including accuracy, repeatability, durability and insensitivity to the external environment. The paper also highlights the limitations of some of the current analytical tools when used for load transducer design, and how these limitations can be overcome by cost-effective combinations of analytical performance prediction and physical test confirmation.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Suspension Development Using Ride Comfort Analysis with a Laboratory Test System

An analytical approach to developing motorcycle suspensions is presented. Typical uncontrolled and subjective evaluations that place limits on suspension development are curtailed through the use of a laboratory-based road simulation technique, which evaluates vehicle ride quality. Ride comfort is calculated using a specifically tailored NASA model after primary and secondary frequency regimes have been established for this type of motorcycle. Correlation between road and laboratory simulation is measured and compared to the road data variance. A designed experiment evaluates changes in ride quality as a function of suspension and tire pressure adjustments. Various suspension settings are repeated on the simulator and corresponding ride numbers are calculated for both environments. An analysis is performed to correlate ride quality improvements on the simulator with ride quality improvements in the field.
Technical Paper

Integration of Real and Virtual Tools for Suspension Development

Suspension development is one of the key steps in a complete vehicle development program. Computer simulation and analysis tools such as Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation are used to refine initial concept and suspension parameters. Later on when a physical prototype is available the suspension system can be experimentally optimized at vehicle level. In this paper a new methodology is proposed which integrates virtual and experimental tools so that design, development and validation of the suspension system is carried out in the early phase of the vehicle development cycle with actual suspension components and without the need of a vehicle prototype. With this new approach, the design of any critical suspension components such as dampers can be optimized at the vehicle level. The new approach consists of combining the actual physical components on loading rig in closed loop with vehicle dynamic model running in real time.
Journal Article

Implementation and Validation of Active Aerodynamic Force Control During Race Vehicle 7-Post Testing

The typical approach for body load simulation during 7-Post testing has been to match body motion and forces for a known suspension setup condition, and then to maintain the applied body loads for subsequent tests with different setups. However, in order for the test to remain valid across a wide range of vehicle setups, the applied body loads may need to be varied to match the specific test car. A significant component of the body load comes from aerodynamic downforce, which can be calculated during a 7-Post test based on vehicle body position and previously recorded wind tunnel test data. This paper discusses a method to generalize the 7-Post inputs by updating the aerodynamic force content automatically during each test run. The paper begins by discussing validation of an active aerodynamic force control scheme on a MTS 320 7-Post road simulator with a NASCAR Sprint Cup vehicle.
Technical Paper

Gear Noise Reduction through Transmission Error Control and Gear Blank Dynamic Tuning

Gear whine can be reduced through a combination of gear parameter selection and manufacturing process design directed at reducing the effective transmission error. The process of gear selection and profile modification design is greatly facilitated through the use of simulation tools to evaluate the details of the tooth contact analysis through the roll angle, including the effect of gear tooth, gear blank and shaft deflections under load. The simulation of transmission error for a range of gear designs under consideration was shown to provide a 3-5 dB range in transmission error. Use of these tools enables the designer to achieve these lower noise limits. An equally important concern is the dynamic mesh stiffness and transmissibility of force from the mesh to the bearings. Design parameters which affect these issues will determine the sensitivity of a transmission to a given level of transmission error.
Technical Paper

Effect of Added Mass of Spindle Wheel Force Transducer on Vehicle Dynamic Response

Wheel force and moment transducers (WFT) are widely used in vehicle testing and analysis [1], [2], [3]. There are many benefits of using these sensors. To install the transducer, vehicle wheel has to be modified. Transducer mounting adaptors are required to interface the sensor with the modified wheel rim. To study the effect of added mass with wheel force transducers, three vehicles, two types of passenger cars, and one SUV, were instrumented with an MTS spindle wheel force transducer (SWIFT 30A) as well as with regular wheels. The instrumented vehicles were driven on multiple proving ground surfaces with three passes for each vehicle. This experimental data was analyzed using RPC Pro software to assess both per pass variation and data trends from 3 passes without WFT (baseline) and 3 passes with WFT added mass. A validated ADAMS model of a production passenger vehicle, with and without added weight of the wheel force transducers, was also used to assess the added weight effect.
Technical Paper

Digitally Controlled Servo-Hydraulic Crash Simulator

The value of crash simulation has long been recognized by carmakers as an essential tool for vehicle development and certification programs. Driven by the need to minimize time-to-market for new models, cost reduction, and by consumer demand for safer cars and trucks, the industry is moving to newer technologies in crash simulation. Crash simulation provides an inexpensive means to quickly simulate the effects of a barrier crash by reproducing its basic elements - acceleration, velocity and displacement - in a nondestructive test. Crash event timing and accuracy of reproduction are critical performance factors. This paper describes the unique features and capabilities offered by a new generation of crash simulators.
Journal Article

Development of a Full-Vehicle Hybrid-Simulation Test using Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC)

Hybrid vehicle simulation methods combine physical test articles (vehicles, suspensions, etc.) with complementary virtual vehicle components and virtual road and driver inputs to simulate the actual vehicle operating environment. Using appropriate components, hybrid simulation offers the possibility to develop more accurate physical tests earlier, and at lower cost, than possible with conventional test methods. MTS Systems has developed Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC), a hybrid simulation method that can utilize existing durability test systems and detailed non-real-time virtual component models to create an accurate full-vehicle simulation test without requiring road load data acquisition. MTS Systems and Audi AG have recently completed a joint evaluation project for the HSRC hybrid simulation method using an MTS 329 road simulator at the Audi facility in Ingolstadt, Germany.
Technical Paper

Development of a Flat Surface Tire Testing Machine

A low speed continuous belt, flat surface tire testing machine has been developed to perform force and moment tests on automotive and light truck tires. The machine is known as the Flat-Trac™ Tire Testing Machine. The design and development of the machine is presented including discussion of machine geometry, belt tracking, belt support bearing, machine controls and the multi-axis load transducer. The specifications and capacities for the machine are also presented.
Technical Paper

Component Tests Based on Vehicle Modeling and Virtual Testing

ADAMS, SIMULINK, and ADAMS-SIMULINK co-simulation models of component test systems, Multi-Axis-Simulation-Table (MAST) systems, and spindle-coupled vehicle testing system (MTS 329) were created. In the ADAMS models, the mechanical parts, joints, and bushings were modeled. Hydraulic and control elements were absent. The SIMULINK models modeled control and hydraulic elements including actuator dynamics, servo valve dynamics, closed loop control, three-variable control, matrix control, and coordinate transformation. However, the specimen had to be simplified due to the limitation of SIMULINK software. The ADAMS-SIMULINK co-simulation models considered hydraulic and control components in the SIMULINK portion and mechanical components in ADAMS portion. The interaction between the ADAMS and SIMULINK portions was achieved using ADAMS/Control.
Technical Paper

Approaches to Vehicle Dynamics and Durability Testing

A test engineer faces a series of considerations (decisions) when designing a test program to conduct service history simulation testing of full scale vehicles (structures) in the laboratory. This paper proposes a logical decision path, with pertinent discussion of tradeoffs, which is intended to serve as a design guide in this process. A good deal of the authors’ subjective opinion is included. The paper begins by presenting a model of how a test facility should interface to the total engineering process. This is important in establishing a proper division of responsibility for the validity and usefulness of test results. This is followed by a specific discussion of service history simulation testing for durability evaluation.
Technical Paper

Application of NVH Techniques to Engine Production Line Test

A major manufacturer of small engines has recently implemented cold and hot start tests on the assembly lines of one of its engines. The cold start test refers to the test in which the engine is motored for a short time. Since this is a motored test, with no combustion occurring in the cylinder, the objective of this test is the detection of manufacturing and assembly defects. Next the engine undergoes a hot start test, in which fuel and air are supplied and the engine is started under a predefined load condition. This is a test performed to verify the performance of the engine under the application conditions. In both tests, typically multiple parameters are measured and extracted to assess the mechanical and thermal performance of the engine. Since noise level and sound quality of small engines have become major concerns for application manufacturers and end-users, an investigation was performed to assess the feasibility of including NVH parameters in the test criteria.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Motorcycle Structural–Resonance–Induced Fatigue Problems

Vehicle structural resonance modes are classified generally into rigid and flexible (non–rigid) body modes. During motorcycle testing and development for design validation, it is often useful to understand these modes of vibration. Understanding rigid and flexible body modes helps to improve the ride and handling performance. Understanding the flexible body modes helps to isolate noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) problems. It can also help to find the root causes of structural durability failures. Flexible body modes can also be annoying or unsafe to the operator. For example, handlebar vibrations may cause numbness in the hands or arms. Flexible body modes also can contribute to motorcycle dynamic instability modes such as the weave instability. Similarly, the rider's ability to see approaching traffic from the rear may be reduced if mirrors are vibrating due to a flexible body mode in the handlebars, frame, or front fork.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Aircraft Tire Blowouts

While the results of an exploding (bursting) tire have long been recognized as catastrophic to personnel and surrounding equipment, little work has previously been performed to quantify the tire burst phenomena. Using the Wright Laboratory Landing Gear Development Facility at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, the pressure wave released by a bursting tire was investigated as part of the United States Air Force sponsored Extended Life Tire program. This evaluation included pneumatic blowouts of F- 16 Block 30 (25.0>x8.0-14) and B-52 (56x16) main landing gear tires. The results of this testing are detailed in this paper and include the identification of: shock wave propagation, attenuation, and distribution, the potential effects on personnel, and recommendations for analysis / prediction techniques.