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Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Shifter Forks using Steel Inserts

2013-09-24
2013-01-2444
Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that is requires utmost care by the designers while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shift fork design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. Designers have realized that shift fork is critical element for improving shift feel of a transmission. This paper focuses upon the reduction in weight of the overall transmission shift system by using steel inserts in aluminum shifter forks. No compromise on the stiffness and strength of the shift fork of a manual transmission is done. Stiffness and strength of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Optimization of 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine Oil Pan Structure for Lower Sound Radiation.

2016-06-15
2016-01-1771
By reducing overall noise emanating from Engine at design phase, permits to reduce both time-to-market and the cost for developing new engines. In order to reduce vibration and radiated noise in engine assembly, oil pan is one of the most critical components. This study explains the key-steps that are executed to optimize the oil pan design for 4-cylinder diesel engine by improving Normal Modes, modified Topology, reduced Forced Frequency Response and ATV analysis for reducing its noise radiation. Using Multi-body tool crankshaft forces were generated and the FE model of Base Design was analysed for its noise radiation and panel contribution was done for finding the most radiating panels using Boundary Element Method approach. A series of iterative optimization were carried out with commercial software. Parameters like Stiffness, material property, Ribbing patterns and Shape of the Oil pan was modified to shift the natural frequencies of the component and reduce the sound radiation.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Small Two Cylinder DI Diesel Engine - Experiences in Improving the Power, Low End Torque and Specific Fuel Consumption

2011-09-11
2011-24-0133
Turbocharged common rail direct injection engines offer multiple benefits compared to their naturally aspirated counterparts by allowing for a significant increase in the power and torque output, while simultaneously improving the specific fuel consumption and smoke. They also make it possible for the engine to operate at a leaner air/fuel mixture ratio, thereby reducing particulate matter emission and permitting higher EGR flow rates. In the present work, a two cylinder, naturally aspirated common rail injected engine for use on a load carrier platform has been fitted with a turbocharger for improving the power and torque output, so that the engine can be used in a vehicle with a higher kerb weight. The basic architecture and hardware remain unchanged between the naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions. A fixed geometry, waste gated turbocharger with intercooling is used.
Technical Paper

Tractor Transmission Validation for Synchronizer as Skid at Rig Level

2017-01-10
2017-26-0231
Synchronizer design optimization is being prime need for smooth gear shifting and shifting noise. Especially in tractors, synchronizers are subjected to different kinds of loads under various field applications such as Puddling, Cultivation, Haulage, Construction equipment, etc. Also, transmission housings act as a part of chassis of the tractor and hence subjected to sever bending loads. Thus, design & evaluation of tractor transmission, meeting the customer requirement is quite complex. Current trends in product development are driven by shortening development time, reduced cost and first-time-right principle. These above requirements drive tractor manufacturers to put more efforts on delivering quality, robust and reliable transmission assembly in time. Generally the synchronizer packs were validated at sub system level in test rig and further assembled on to the tractor to validate the same in tractor level it requires more time & high cost.
Technical Paper

Study of Intake and Exhaust System Acoustic Performance Refinement with the Help of Vibro-Acoustic Analysis Tool

2010-06-09
2010-01-1427
Increase in customer's awareness for better vehicle NVH has prompted automobile industry to address NVH issues more seriously. Among other critical vehicle systems for NVH, Air Intake and Exhaust Systems play an important role in terms of passenger compartment noise, sound quality and vehicle pass-by noise. Hence proper design & development of these systems is imperative to reduce their contribution in overall vehicle NVH. This needs to be achieved within constraints of meeting other functional requirements such as emissions and engine performance. The design parameters one needs to look at while developing the intake and exhaust system are mainly the acoustic transmission loss, structural noise radiations from the surfaces and structural isolation between body and these systems. This paper demonstrates the use of FEM approach for Vibro-Acoustic Analysis as a practical means for design of intake and exhaust system in terms of high transmission loss.
Technical Paper

Split Type Crankcase Design for a Single Cylinder LCV Diesel Engine

2017-01-10
2017-26-0040
Serious efforts have been put in space to focus on lowering the fuel consumption and CO2 discharge to the environment from Automotive Diesel Engines. Though more focus is put on material up gradation approach on weight perspective, it is accompanied by undesirable cost increase and manufacturing complexity. As a part of development of a single cylinder engine for a light commercial vehicle application, a unique approach of integrated split type crankcase design is designed and developed. This design have addressed all the key factors on Weight, Cost and Manufacturing perspectives. The split type crankcase configuration, particularly middle-split configuration, integrates the oil sump, front cover and flywheel housing in a single unit beneficial from the point of view of reducing engine weight and thus reducing the manufacturing costs. This crankcase is also excellent from the serviceability point of view.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and PM Emissions through Low Temperature EGR Cooling in Diesel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2803
In this paper, Authors tried to investigate the influence of Low Temperature EGR (LtEGR) on NOx, PM emissions and fuel efficiency in NEDC 120 cycle. Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) less than 3.5T vehicle selected for investigation of LtEGR. The existing water cooling circuit modified to suitable to handle the LtEGR concept without changing the existing EGR cooler. Cooled EGR technology has two benefits in terms of handling high EGR ratios and more fresh air within the engine displacement. Under this assumption separate LtEGR layout was prepared for the evolution of superior EGR cooling technologies and low pressure EGR.
Technical Paper

Silent Block Bush Design and Optimization for Pick-Up Truck Leaf Spring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0455
Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
Journal Article

Shifter Fork Stiffness Correlation to Gear Shift Quality

2013-09-24
2013-01-2447
Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that requires utmost care while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. This paper presents a correlation between stiffness of the shift fork in manual transmission with the gear shift quality using a gear shift quality assessment setup. Stiffness of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A-5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same. A direct correlation of gear shift fork stiffness with the shift force experienced by the driver is established. The shift system was modeled in the UG NX 6.0 software to collate the synchronization force, shift system gap etc with the constraint on the shift fork.
Technical Paper

Shift Rail Interlock Design, Simulation and Analysis for Shift Force Transfer to the Shifter Finger

2013-09-24
2013-01-2443
Interlock mechanism have found multiple uses in the shift system of a manual transmission. It can either be used to block every other rail from moving other then the active shifting rail or it can be used to bring all rails in neutral positions. As a designer the aim is to make systems more compact and efficient in its functionality. This desire to have a compact shift system results in the design of an interlock ball mechanism which allows the use of a single shift finger for two different rails. To validate this design a 5 speed manual transaxle was used, in which the 5th rail and the reverse rail are combined in a single shift finger. Between the rails a single 8mm interlock ball is used to transmit the shifting force to the rails from the shift finger. After a complete analysis of the profile for every degree of gradient the model was manufactured for testing on bench setup established for shifting tests. Various tests were performed and the system was tested and validated.
Technical Paper

Setting of Inspection Parameters for Automotive Transmission Parts in Various Bench Tests

2013-09-24
2013-01-2448
This paper deals with setting of Inspection parameters for selected automotive transmission parts in various bench tests. This paper we are discuss about critical dimension's measured for particular type of test. It is not possible to measure all the dimensions of a component for doing a particular test. This is due to time constraints set by program delivery deadlines. From above statement it can be deduced that it is almost impossible to measure all dimensions of a component. A bench level test may consist of two major tests. They are maximum load test and gear shift durability test. The maximum load test deals with gear box durability test and torque carrying capacity of gearbox. Parameters to be measured for some of above parts will be identified. More importantly it will also identify see reasons for that parameter to be measured.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2012-09-24
2012-01-1989
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5 Gear-Manual Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. A Motor is attached to the output shaft of the Transmission which drives in power while the AMT unit is making transition from one gear to another.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2013-10-14
2013-01-2605
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5-MT Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. Thus, it offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This seminal paper provides an introduction to the technology together.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Torsional Impact Load Causes, Effects and Mitigation Measures in a Parallel Mild Hybrid Powertrain

2016-04-05
2016-01-1062
Hybrid powertrains generally involve adding an electric propulsion system to an existing internal combustion engine powertrain. Due to their reduced emissions, no reliance on public infrastructure and acceptable cost of ownership, hybrids are seen as a feasible intermediate step to deliver clean and affordable transportation for the masses. Such systems are immensely complex due to the number of interplaying systems and advanced control strategies used to deliver optimum performance under widely varying loads. Resonant torsional impacts arise out of the interactions due to rotational speed variations providing impulses at specific frequencies to the spinning inertias connected by members of finite stiffness. The effects, depending on the magnitude and duration of the impacts range from unacceptably harsh vibrations to catastrophic component failure.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Noise & Sound Quality Refinement for New Generation Common Rail Engines

2010-06-09
2010-01-1414
Noise & sound quality has gained equal importance as that of emissions and crash safety of the vehicles. With increased engine power to weight ratio, the challenges for NVH engineers has increased multifold. Passenger compartment comfort levels are getting affected largely due to lighter and powerful engines. Same time, there is pressure to reduce overall vehicle weight and cost. This impose constraints to NVH engineer in designing the body structure and sound package to reduce the effect of powertrain forces and airborne noise on passenger compartment. In addition to weight constraints, there is trend emerging to use two & three cylinder engines which need to perform on par with four cylinder engines. This has shown adverse effect on vehicle NVH performance due to wider low frequency unbalance forces.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mounted Exhaust System Failure Correlation and Methodology Development in CAE

2017-01-10
2017-26-0267
Exhaust system is one of the complex automotive systems in terms of performance and strength prediction due to combination of transient mechanical and thermal loads acting on it simultaneously. Traditionally, most of automotive vehicles have exhaust systems with hot end mounted on engine and cold end mounted on chassis or BIW through hangers. A new powertrain mounted exhaust system was developed in-house. This exhaust system underwent validation and evaluation during development phase. Durability concerns were observed on exhaust system in Track test and gear shift durability test. This paper focuses on identifying the root cause of these concerns based on the failures observed during evaluation in Accelerated Durability (ADT) and gear shift durability (GSD) tests. Based on the architecture and packaging space challenges in vehicle, engine is mounted on two mounts and a roll restrictor. Muffler, which has higher inertia, is mounted at higher offset with respect to engine rolling axis.
Technical Paper

Polypropylene Copolymer Material for Automotive Thin Wall Front Bumper with Integrated Grill Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0153
This paper describes modified polypropylene copolymer (PPCP) material for thin wall front bumper development (2.5 mm) with integrated grill in automotive application. This compounded PPCP material has optimized flow behavior, tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, and thermal properties to meet the functional requirements. This is a ready to mold material used in injection molding process. Front bumper and grill are functional components with slow speed impact requirement to absorb impact in real world. These parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition. Front bumper is also having other critical criteria with respect to vehicle variants such as aesthetic mold-in-color finish as well as painted finish. Grill has air entry performance criteria to ensure cooling efficiency in intercooler compartment.
Technical Paper

Polypropylene Copolymer Automotive Canopy Plastic Structure Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0157
This paper describes modified polypropylene copolymer (PPCP) material for canopy plastic structure in a modular commercial passenger vehicle. This compounded PPCP material has optimized flow behavior, tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, and thermal properties to meet the functional requirements. Material described in this paper is a PPCP compound reinforced with glass fiber and mica filler. The application described in this paper is a canopy plastic structure, which is a structural exterior plastic part. Canopy plastic structure acts as a structural frame to hold vinyl canopy in both sides and tail gate of vehicle. In this paper, PPCP has been explored for canopy plastic structure part against conventional polyamides. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analyzed by using mold flow analysis.
Technical Paper

Optimization through NVH Analysis to Improve the Vehicle Acoustics and Quality of Transmission Shifter

2013-09-24
2013-01-2445
Gear shift quality and feel determines the performance of the transmission. It is dependent on the synchronizer, shift system, gear shifter etc in a transmission. In this study the impact of the transmission shifter on the gear shift feel is detailed. More focus is paid towards the feel in terms of NVH characteristics. The rear wheel drive transmission shifter can be bifurcated into direct and indirect shift type. Indirect shifter are of two types, the rod type shifter and the cable shifter. The rod type shifter is analyzed in detail. All the shifters are connected to the gear shift top lever which is the customer interface for gear shifting. The design of the top lever is critical in getting the optimal feel of shifting and the mounting of the shifter is critical to improve its NVH characteristics. Different design iteration of the top lever are studied to illustrate the impact of the weight and stiffness on the vibration.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Tip-In Response Character of Sports Utility Vehicle and Verification with Objective Methodology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1354
Each OEM has a distinguishing drivability character that defines its image in the market to achieve brand differentiation. Drivability is one of the important factors along with fuel economy that determines the success of a vehicle vis-à-vis its competitors. It can be said that the need for good drivability among customers is increasing day by day similar to the need for high fuel economy. Drivability is the response that a vehicle delivers to the inputs of the driver which are mainly accelerator, brake, clutch, gear and steering. The dynamic response of the vehicle is mainly in terms of velocity and acceleration. The way the response is delivered will characterize the drivability of a vehicle. The drivability event discussed in this paper is throttle tip-in response which is one of the critical evaluation factors for defining the character of a Sports Utility Vehicle.
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