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Technical Paper

Study of Optimal Magnification for Retained Austenite Evaluation in Low carbon Case Hardening steel Using Metallurgical Microscopy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1017
This study on optimum magnification at which Retained austenite to be evaluated by comparing the difference in determining the retained austenite in low carbon carburizing alloy steel using the optical metallurgical micrographic method and X-ray diffraction method. The retained austenite phase will be in surface and color is white in nature also its presented in between the martensite needles. It can be distinguished as separate micro-constituents by using image analyzing software. In another method the RA measurements were carried out on the surface by PROTO iXRD Retained austenite measuring system using Cr K radiation. The (211) and (200) reflections of Martensite and (220) and (200) reflections of Austenite were made for this estimation. However, the calculated values of retained austenite by metallurgical microscope in different magnifications are not identical.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and PM Emissions through Low Temperature EGR Cooling in Diesel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2803
In this paper, Authors tried to investigate the influence of Low Temperature EGR (LtEGR) on NOx, PM emissions and fuel efficiency in NEDC 120 cycle. Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) less than 3.5T vehicle selected for investigation of LtEGR. The existing water cooling circuit modified to suitable to handle the LtEGR concept without changing the existing EGR cooler. Cooled EGR technology has two benefits in terms of handling high EGR ratios and more fresh air within the engine displacement. Under this assumption separate LtEGR layout was prepared for the evolution of superior EGR cooling technologies and low pressure EGR.
Technical Paper

Selection of Optimal Design Parameters to Achieve Improved Occupant Performance in Frontal Impacts

2013-04-08
2013-01-0756
Crashworthiness enhancement of vehicle structures is a very challenging task during the early design development process. Major factors influencing occupant injury in frontal impact are vehicle front crush space, crash pulse severity, restraint properties and occupant packaging space. This paper establishes a methodology to define suitable criterion that will guide the designers to select the optimal values of the above mentioned parameters during the early phase of the vehicle development. The usage of lumped mass models, pulse characterization techniques were explored to validate the results. Efficient crash energy management, the concepts of ride down and restraint efficiency parameters were also discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Power Distribution Unit in Wiring Harness

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. The concept of next generation power distribution unit in automobiles is achieved using miniaturization of its sub-components which involves replacing the mini fuses and JCASE fuses with LP mini and LP JCASE fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP JCASE fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively.
Technical Paper

New Trends of Material & Heat Treatment in Automotive Transmission Shaft

2013-09-24
2013-01-2446
This paper deals with new trends in materials & heat treatment in automotive transmission shafting. The material is S48C a low carbon alloy steel and material for automotive shaft special significance as it reduces overall cost in vehicle transmission shafts. Conventional method of shaft heat heat-treatment is case hardening for 20MnCr5. S48C is low-carbon alloy steel. This is an alternate proposal to 20MnCr5.There are lot of advantages in induction hardening over case hardening. Also induction hardening process with S48C material becomes cheaper than case-hardening with 20MnCr5.Strength and resistance to stress must therefore be carefully considered during the material selection and heat-treatment process. We have done Static torsion test for 20MnCr5 (case hardened steel) and S48C (induction hardened shaft). Test results were comparable with 20MnCr5 (case hardened steel). Also after test a metallurgical inspection was done on an S48C (induction hardened shaft).
Technical Paper

Monocoque Vehicle Body-In-White Life Evaluation Using Torsion Endurance Test on Rig

2016-04-05
2016-01-0276
In an automotive product development environment, identifying the premature structural failures is one of the important tasks for Body-In-White (BIW), sub-assemblies and components. The integrated car body structure i.e. monocoque structure, is widely used in passenger cars and SUVs. This structure is subjected to bending and torsional vibrations, due to dynamic loads. Normally the stresses due to bending are relatively small compared to stresses due to torsion in Body-In-White under actual road conditions [1]. This paper focuses on evaluating the life of Body-In-White structures subjected to torsional loading. An accelerated test method was evolved for identifying failure modes of monocoque BIW by applying torsion fatigue. The observation of the crack generation and propagation was made with respect to a number of torsion fatigue cycles.
Technical Paper

Measurement Technique for Quantifying Structure Borne and Air Borne Noise Levels in Utility Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-0003
Accurate quantification of structure borne noise is a challenging task for NVH engineers. The structural excitation sources of vibration and noise such as powertrain and suspension are connected to the passenger compartment by means of elastomer mounts and spring elements. The indirect force estimation methods such as complex dynamic stiffness method and matrix inversion method are being used to overcome the limitations of direct measurement. In many practical applications, the data pertaining to load dependent dynamic stiffness of the connections especially related to mounts is not available throughout the frequency range of interest which limits the application of complex dynamic stiffness method. The matrix inversion method mainly suffers from the drawback that it needs operational data not contaminated by the effect of other forces which are not considered for calculation.
Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

2013-11-27
2013-01-2881
The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
Technical Paper

Green Drive - A Holistic Approach Towards Fuel Efficient Driving

2017-01-10
2017-26-0078
In the past few decades, improvement on fuel efficient technologies have progressed rapidly, whereas little emphasis is being made on how the vehicle should be driven. Driving habits significantly influences fuel consumption and poor driving habits leads to increased fuel consumption. In this paper a new system called “Green Drive” is being presented wherein driving habits are closely monitored, evaluated and details are systematically presented to the user. Green Drive system monitors key driving parameters like speed, gear selection, acceleration, unwanted engine idling periods, aggressive braking and clutch override and presents an ecoscore on the infotainment system which is reflection of users driving behavior. The system also offers guidance on the scope for improving driving habits to achieve better ecoscore and hence reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurement to Predict Power Steering Pump Hub Load with Implementation of Belt Driven Starter Generator

2017-01-10
2017-26-0149
The present scenario in automobile industry is formed on developing smart vehicles by introducing various feature towards fuel efficient, low emission, weight reduction, and advance safety feature with hybrid and micro-hybrid vehicles. One such feature gaining more popularity is the Belt Driven Starter Generator [1] for its contribution towards fuel efficiency, emission reduction [2], weight reduction and convenient packaging with engine/electrical interface. However this invention puts challenge of integration and increase in loading to various system like power steering pump and crank shaft pulley, as all these systems are interlinked with a common belt. In this interface links we observed the steering pump hub under risk of structural failure due to additional load to support Belt Driven Starter Generator. Failure to identify safe limits of hub load can affect safe vehicle operation [3].
Technical Paper

Design of a Single Rail Internal Gear Shift System for a 5 Speed Manual Transmission

2013-04-08
2013-01-1771
This paper presents the detailed design of a Single Rail Internal Gear Shift System for a 5-speed manual transmission of a load carrier vehicle. Gear shifting in manual transmissions is achieved by actuating a synchronizer sleeve and engaging it with the required gear. Actuation of synchronizer sleeves is effected by gear shift forks which are supported in the transmission by a rail/shaft. Conventional 5-speed transmissions use Multi Rail Gear shift systems, wherein each of the forks viz. Fork 1-2, Fork3-4 & Fork 5th, for actuating the synchronizer sleeves, are supported by and fixed to individual rails. This paper presents the design of a Single Rail Gear shift system, wherein all the gear shift forks will be supported on a common rail/shaft, thus making the entire system compact and reducing the system weight. The Single Rail, in the proposed design, apart from supporting the three forks, also serves to actuate the Reverse Gear, which is of sliding mesh type in this case.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

2019-10-11
2019-28-0016
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short load transferring link, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Design Strategies for Meeting ECE R14 Safety Test for Light Commercial Vehicle

2010-10-05
2010-01-2017
The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Bharat (Trem) Stage IV Solutionsfor TractorEngines

2015-01-14
2015-26-0092
India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
Technical Paper

Analytical Design and Development for Automobile Powertrain Mounts Using Low Fidelity Calculators

2016-02-01
2016-28-0185
The excitation to a vehicle is from two sources, road excitation and powertrain excitation. Vehicle Suspension is designed to isolate the road excitation coming to passenger cabin. Powertrain mounts play a vital role in isolating the engine excitation. The current study focuses on developing an analytical approach using Low-Fidelity computer programs to design the Powertrain Mount layout and stiffness during the initial stage of product development. Three programs have been developed as a part of this study that satisfy the packaging needs, NVH requirements and static load bearing requirements. The applications are capable of providing the Kinetic Energy Distribution and Static Analysis (Powertrain Enveloping and Mount Durability) for 3-point and 4-point mounting systems and the ideal mount positions and stiffness for 3-point mounting systems.
Technical Paper

Alternate Manufacturing Process for Automotive Input Shafts

2017-10-13
2017-01-5013
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of an Intercity Bus through Surface Modifications - A Numerical Simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0045
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses, the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.
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