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Technical Paper

Slinger Design in Live 4WD Axle for Tractor

Proper lubrication is essential for any gear box & axle to get optimized performance. For getting desired life of gear train, we have to maintain minimum oil level inside the gear box or axle, whereas in case of rotating parts such as bearings and shafts, we have to provide sealing such as o rings & oil seals to stop oil coming out from the housing. But, if sealing is not proper seepage & leakage start and reduce the oil level inside the gear box. Oil deficiency leads to scuffing failure in gears and later occurrence of gear & bearing seizure ultimately fails the system. To sustain proper lubrication, we must seal the interfaces appropriately. There are different types of sealing available. Sealing is also depended on application and its location. To protect seal from external environment, we adopt a unique arrangement called slinger which enhances the life of seal.
Technical Paper

Positive Difflock Stopper for Off Road Vehicles

The purpose of a differential is to allow the wheels of an automobile to turn at different speeds so that it does not skid during turning. However when a vehicle runs on a slick or muddy surface (especially in Agricultural and constructional Field applications) that same feature causes the wheel with less traction to spin freely as this unit transmits power to the tire with least amount of traction. The function of a difflock is to lock the differential gears, by locking the differential, both the axles receive equal power and hence equal traction is available at both the tires. This Paper describes the positive locking of a differential by stopper, and also in detail the problems associated with its engagement and disengagement in tractors and construction equipment's. Additionally a concept for a difflock stopper which has been experimentally proven for tractors and construction equipment's is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Quantitatively Evaluate the Secondary Ride Characteristics of a Vehicle

The Ride Comfort has always been an important attribute of a vehicle that gets trade-off with handling characteristics of a vehicle. However, to cater the growing customer requirements for better ride comfort in a vehicle without compromising on other attributes, evaluating and achieving optimal ride comfort has become a significant process in the vehicle development. In the current engineering capability and virtual engineering simulations, creating an accurate and real time model to predict ride comfort of a vehicle is a challenging task. The qualitative evaluation of ride attributes has always been the proven conventional method to finalize the requirements of a vehicle. However, quantitative evaluation of vehicle ride characteristics benefits in terms of target setting during vehicle development process and in robust validation of the final intended product against its specifications.
Technical Paper

Innovative Methodology for Durability Evaluation of Off Road Vehicle Rear Axle under Bi-Axial Load Condition using Single Linear Actuator

Rear axles are subjected to bending and torsion loads out of which Bending loads are predominant. In case of Off road vehicles Bi Axial- combination of Bending and torsion loads were predominant, because of axle construction and vehicle usage pattern. Defined test procedures are available for bending durability and torsional durability evaluation of axles. In this experiment, new test methodology was developed for Bi Axial durability evaluation of Off road vehicle rear axle with single servo hydraulic linear actuator. For creating Bi Axial load condition, we may need multiple actuators and complicated fixtures. Axle wheel end is constrained at an angle with suitable fixtures for creating the bending and torsional forces together in the axle. Servo hydraulic linear actuator with suitable loading arm is used for applying the test torque in the axle input flange.
Technical Paper

High Performance EGR Cooler Selection and its Fouling Behavior for a HSDI Diesel Engine

Selection of EGR system is very complex for a particular engine application. The performance of the EGR system depends highly on the Cooler Heat Transfer Efficiency. Cooler effectiveness drops over a period of operation due to soot deposition, HC condensation, and fuel quality. This phenomenon is called as Cooler Fouling. Fouling cannot be avoided completely but the level of performance drop over time has to be studied and minimized. The minimum pressure drop and the highest efficiency in fouled condition is the target for selection of a cooler. In this study, various parameter combinations like tube shape and profile, tube length, number of tubes, tube diameter, and pitch of corrugations, which influence the cooler performance were tested. A better understanding of each of its effect on cooler effectiveness and fouling behavior was obtained. The tube shape was changed from rectangular to circular, also from smooth surface to corrugate.
Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effect of Steering Input Frequency on Transient Lateral Dynamics of Four-Wheeled Passenger Vehicles

Vehicle lateral dynamic response parameters such as yaw velocity, lateral acceleration, roll angle, etc. depend on the nature of steering input. Response parameters vary with the amplitude and frequency of steering input. This paper deals with developing insights into the effect of steering input frequency on transient handling dynamics. For the purpose two SUV segment vehicles with similar curb weight are considered. Vehicles are given pulse inputs of the amplitudes corresponding to 4 m/s2 steady state lateral acceleration and target speeds of 80 kmph and 100 kmph, as recommended in ISO 7401:2011. Steering inputs are executed using a Steering Robot (ABD SR30). Lateral transient dynamic response gains as well as natural frequencies of yaw are studied for 0-2 Hz input frequencies. Several insights are developed, adding to the understanding of transient lateral dynamics and its relationship with steering input.