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Technical Paper

Throttle Movement Rate Effects on Transient Fuel Compensation in a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1937
Throttle ramp rate effects on the in-cylinder fuel/air (F/A) excursion was studied in a production engine. The fuel delivered to the cylinder per cycle was measured in-cylinder by a Fast Response Flame Ionization detector. Intake pressure was ramped from 0.4 to 0.9 bar. Under slow ramp rates (∼1 s ramp time), the Engine Electronic Control (EEC) unit provided the correct compensation for delivering a stoichiometric mixture to the cylinder throughout the transient. At fast ramp rates (a fraction of a second ramps), a lean spike followed by a rich one were observed. Based on the actual fuel injected in each cycle during the transient, a x-τ model using a single set of x and τ values reproduced the cycle-to-cycle in-cylinder F/A response for all the throttle ramp rates.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss at Component Interfaces in Stirling Cycles

1992-08-03
929468
The paper considers the thermodynamic irreversibility in Stirling cycle machines at the interface between components with different thermodynamic characteristics. The approach of the paper is to consider the simplest possible cases and to focus on the factors that influence the thermodynamic losses. For example, an ideal adiabatic cylinder facing an ideal isothermal heat exchanger is considered. If there is no mixing in the cylinder (gas remains one dimensionally stratified), there will be no loss (irreversibility) if the gas motion is in phase with the gas pressure changes. If there is a phase shift, as required to have a network for the cylinder, there will be a loss (entropy generation) because the gas will not match the heat exchanger temperature. There will also be a loss if the gas in the cylinder is mixed rather than stratified. Similar simple interface conditions can be considered between components and interconnecting open volumes and between heat exchangers and regenerators.
Technical Paper

The Use of Semi-Solid Rheocasting (SSR) for Aluminum Automotive Castings

2003-03-03
2003-01-0433
Semi-solid metal (SSM) casting has long been identified as a high-volume process for producing safety-critical and structural automotive castings, but cost and complexity issues have limited its widespread commercial acceptance. Rheocasting, an SSM process that creates semi-solid slurry directly from liquid metal, eliminates the cost disadvantages of the process. However, the majority of rheocasting processes are complex and difficult to operate in the foundry environment. Recent work at MIT has led to the fundamental discovery that application of heat removal and convection as a molten alloy cools through the liquidus creates a non-dendritic, semi-solid slurry. A new process based on this understanding, S.S.R.™ (Semi-Solid Rheocasting), simplifies the rheocasting process by controlling heat removal and convection of an alloy during cooling using an external device. Solution heat treatable castings have been produced in a horizontal die casting machine with the S.S.R.™ process.
Technical Paper

The Theory of Cost Risk in Design

1999-03-01
1999-01-0495
In a recent paper (Hoult & Meador, [1]) a novel method of estimating the costs of parts, and assemblies of parts, was presented. This paper proposed that the metric for increments of cost was the function log (dimension/tolerance). Although such log functions have a history,given in [1], starting with Boltzman and Shannon, it is curious that it arises in cost models. In particular, the thermodynamic basis of information theory, given by Shannon [2], seems quite implausible in the present context. In [1], we called the cost theory “Complexity Theory”, mainly to distinguish it from information theory. A major purpose of the present paper is to present a rigorous argument of how the log function arises in the present context. It happens that the agrument hinges on two key issues: properties of the machine making or assembling the part, and a certain limit process. Neither involves thermodynamic reasoning.
Technical Paper

The Study of Friction between Piston Ring and Different Cylinder Liners using Floating Liner Engine - Part 1

2012-04-16
2012-01-1334
The objective of this work was to develop an experimental system to support development and validation of a model for the lubrication of two-piece Twin-Land-Oil-Control-Rings (hereafter mentioned as TLOCR). To do so, a floating liner engine was modified by opening the head and crankcase. Additionally, only TLOCR was installed together with a piston that has 100 micron cold clearance to minimize the contribution of the skirt to total friction. Friction traces, FMEP trend, and repeatability have been examined to guarantee the reliability of the experiment results. Then, engine speed, liner temperature, ring tension, and land widths were changed in a wide range to ensure all three lubrication regimes were covered in the experiments.
Technical Paper

The Production System Design and Deployment Framework

1999-05-11
1999-01-1644
This session keynote paper presents a framework for designing and deploying production systems. The framework enables the communication and determination of objectives and design solutions from the highest level to the lowest level of a manufacturing enterprise. The design methodology ensures that the physical implementation, called Design Parameters (DPs), meets the objectives or Functional Requirements (FRs) of the production system design. This paper presents a revolutionary approach to determine the objectives and the implementation of a “lean” production system design for a manufacturing business as guided by the design axiom of independence.
Technical Paper

The Mars Gravity Biosatellite: Atmospheric Reconditioning Strategies for Extended-Duration Rodent Life Support

2007-07-09
2007-01-3224
We present results which verify the design parameters and suggest performance capabilities/limitations of the Mars Gravity Biosatellite's proposed atmospherics control subassembly. Using a combination of benchtop prototype testing and analytic techniques, we derive control requirements for ammonia. Further, we demonstrate the dehumidification performance of our proposed partial gravity condensing heat exchanger. Ammonia production is of particular concern in rodent habitats. The contaminant is released following chemical degradation of liquid waste products. The rate of production is linked to humidity levels and to the design of habitat modules in terms of bedding substrate, air flow rates, choice of structural materials, and other complex factors. Ammonia buildup can rapidly lead to rodent health concerns and can negatively impact scientific return.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Takt Time in Manufacturing System Design

1999-05-10
1999-01-1635
Lean production has greatly influenced the way manufacturing systems should be designed. One important aspect of lean production is takt time. Takt time relates customer demand to available production time and is used to pace the production. This paper applies the manufacturing system design and deployment framework to describe the impact of takt time on both the design and the operation of a manufacturing system. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the relevant relationships of takt time to overall system design.
Technical Paper

THE VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY OF FOUR-STROKE ENGINES

1952-01-01
520259
PARAMOUNT among the problems relating to the efficiency of the internal-combustion engine is that of breathing capacity, or air consumption. Considering volumetric efficiency to be the most valuable parameter in an analytical or experimental approach to this problem, the authors of this paper have devoted several years of study to this factor in relation to 4-stroke engines. The studies have resulted in extensive findings, some of which have already been published. This paper attempts to bring together in readable form the results of the work to date, including both published and unpublished data. The authors discuss in detail the effect of volumetric efficiency on operating variables, piston speed, inlet-valve flow capacity, cylinder design, and size. They introduce a gulp factor, the inlet-valve Mach index, and explain how this factor can be used to guide engineers.
Journal Article

Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-1071
Mechanisms of NH₃ generation using LNT-like catalysts have been studied in a bench reactor over a wide range of temperatures, flow rates, reformer catalyst types and synthetic exhaust-gas compositions. The experiments showed that the on board production of sufficient quantities of ammonia on board for SCR operation appeared feasible, and the results identified the range of conditions for the efficient generation of ammonia. In addition, the effects of reformer catalysts using the water-gas-shift reaction as an in-situ source of the required hydrogen for the reactions are also illustrated. Computations of the NH₃ and NOx kinetics have also been carried out and are presented. Design and impregnation of the SCR catalyst in proximity to the ammonia source is the next logical step. A heated synthetic-exhaust gas flow bench was used for the experiments under carefully controlled simulated exhaust compositions.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis of Ash Packing and Distribution in Diesel Particulate Filters to Transient Changes in Exhaust Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-1093
Current CJ-4 lubricant specifications place chemical limits on diesel engine oil formulations to minimize the accumulation of lubricant-derived ash in diesel particulate filters (DPF). While lubricant additive chemistry plays a strong role in determining the amount and type of ash accumulated in the DPF, a number of additional factors play important roles as well. Relative to soot particles, whose residence time in the DPF is short-lived, ash particles remain in the filter for a significant fraction of the filter's useful life. While it is well-known that the properties (packing density, porosity, permeability) of soot deposits are primarily controlled by the local exhaust conditions at the time of particle deposition in the DPF, the cumulative operating history of the filter plays a much stronger role in controlling the properties and distribution of the accumulated ash.
Technical Paper

Scavenging the 2-Stroke Engine

1954-01-01
540258
THE indicated output of a 2-stroke engine is primarily dependent upon the success with which the products of combustion are driven from the cylinder and are replaced by fresh air or mixture during the scavenging period. Such replacement must, of course, be accomplished with a minimum of blower power. This paper deals with various aspects of 2-stroke research conducted at M.I.T. during the past 10 years. Among the subjects discussed are the methods used in the prediction and measurement of scavenging efficiency, and the effect of engine design and operating variables on the scavenging blower requirements as reflected by the scavenging ratio.
Technical Paper

Recommendations for Real-Time Decision Support Systems for Lunar and Planetary EVAs

2007-07-09
2007-01-3089
Future human space exploration includes returning to the Moon and continuing to Mars. Essential to these missions is each planetary extravehicular activity, or EVA, where astronauts and robotic agents will explore lunar and planetary surfaces. Real-time decision support systems will help these explorers in efficiently planning and re-planning under time pressure sorties. Information and functional requirements for such a system are recommended and are based on on-going human-computer collaboration research.
Technical Paper

Predicting Product Manufacturing Costs from Design Attributes: A Complexity Theory Approach

1996-02-01
960003
This paper contains both theorems and correlations based on the idea that there is a uniform metric for measuring the complexity of mechanical parts. The metric proposed is the logarithm of dimension divided by tolerance. The theorems prove that, on the average, for a given manufacturing process, the time to fabricate is simply proportional to this metric. We show corrleations for manual turning (machine lathe process), manual milling (machine milling process), and the lay-up of composite stringers. In each case the accuracy of the time estimate is as good as that of traditional cost estimation methods, but the effort is much less. The coefficient for composite lay-up compares well to that obtained from basic physiological data (Fitts Law).
Technical Paper

Phenomena that Determine Knock Onset in Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-01-23
2007-01-0007
Experiments were carried out to collect in-cylinder pressure data and microphone signals from a single-cylinder test engine using spark timingsbefore, at, and after knock onset for toluene reference fuels. The objective was to gain insight into the phenomena that determine knock onset, detected by an external microphone. In particular, the study examines how the end-gas autoignition process changes as the engine's spark timing is advanced through the borderline knock limit into the engine's knocking regime. Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) and bandpass filtering techniques were used to process the recorded cylinder pressure data to determine knock intensities for each cycle. Two characteristic pressure oscillation frequencies were detected: a peak just above 6 kHz and a range of peaks in the 15-22 kHz range. The microphone data shows that the audible knock signal has the same 6 kHz peak.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of Resistance Spot Welding Lobe Curve

1988-02-01
880278
A linearized lumped parameter heat balance model was developed and is discussed for the general case of resistance welding to see the effects of each parameter on the lobe shape. The parameters include material properties, geometry of electrodes and work piece, weld time and current, and electrical and thermal contact characteristics. These are then related to heat dissipation in the electrodes and the work piece. The results indicate that the ratio of thermal conductivity and heat capacity to electrical resistivity is a characteristic number which is representative of the ease of spot weldability of a given material. The increases in thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the sheet metal increase the lobe width while increases in electrical resistivity decrease the lobe width. Inconsistencies in the weldability of thin sheets and the wider lobe width at long welding times can both be explained by the heat dissipation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Base Oil Viscosity Temperature Dependence For Power Cylinder Friction Reduction

2014-04-01
2014-01-1658
Lubricant viscosity along the engine cylinder liner varies by an order of magnitude due to local temperature variation and vaporization effects. Tremendous potential exists for fuel economy improvement by optimizing local viscosity variations for specific operating conditions. Methods for analytical estimation of friction and wear in the power-cylinder system are reviewed and used to quantify opportunities for improving mechanical efficiency and fuel economy through lubricant formulation tailored specifically to liner temperature distributions. Temperature dependent variations in kinematic viscosity, density, shear thinning, and lubricant composition are investigated. Models incorporating the modified Reynolds equation were used to estimate friction and wear under the top ring and piston skirt of a typical 11.0 liter diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Optimal Forming of Aluminum 2008-T4 Conical Cups Using Force Trajectory Control

1993-03-01
930286
In this paper we investigate the optimal forming of conical cups of AL 2008-T4 through the use of real-time process control. We consider a flat, frictional binder the force of which can be determined precisely through closed-loop control. Initially the force is held constant throughout the forming of the cup, and various levels of force are tested experimentally and with numerical simulation. Excellent agreement between experiment and simulation is observed. The effects of binder force on cup shape, thickness distribution, failure mode and cup failure height are investigated, and an “optimal” constant binder force is determined. For this optimal case, the corresponding punch force is recorded as a function of punch displacement and is used in subsequent closed-loop control experiments. In addition to the constant force test, a trial variable binder force test was performed to extend the failure height beyond that obtained using the “optimal” constant force level.
Journal Article

On the Nature of Particulate Emissions from DISI Engines at Cold-Fast-Idle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1368
Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm range was measured as a function of the injection timing with single pulse injection and with split injection. Very low PN emissions were observed when injection took place in the mid intake stroke because of the fast fuel evaporation and mixing processes which were facilitated by the high turbulent kinetic energy created by the intake charge motion. Under these conditions, substantial liquid fuel film formation on the combustion chamber surfaces was avoided. PN emissions increased when injection took place in the compression stroke, and increased substantially when the fuel spray hit the piston.
Technical Paper

On the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate in Boosted HCCI Operation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2727
This paper explores the combined effects of boosting, intake air temperature, trapped residual gas fraction, and dilution on the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) in a boosted single cylinder gasoline HCCI engine with combustion controlled by negative valve overlap. Dilutions by both air and by cooled EGR were used. Because of the sensitivity of MPRR to boost, the MPRR constrained maximum load (as measured by the NIMEP) did not necessarily increase with boosting. At the same intake temperature and trapped residual gas fraction, dilution by recirculated burn gas was effective in reducing the MPRR, but dilution by air increased the value of MPRR. The dependence of MPRR on the operating condition was interpreted successfully by a simple thermodynamic analysis that related the MPRR value to the volumetric heat release rate.
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