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Technical Paper

Using Mass Spectrometry to Detect Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

Ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions from a direct ignition spark ignition were measured using mass spectrometry. Previous methods focused on eliminating or minimizing interference from exhaust species with identical atomic mass and fragment ions created in ionization process. This paper describes a new technique which exploits the fragment ions from ethanol and acetaldehyde. A survey of mass spectra of all major species of exhaust gas was conducted. It was found that ethanol contributes most ions in mass number 31 and that no other gas species produces ions at this mass number. Acetaldehyde detection suffers more interference. Nevertheless, it was estimated that detection at mass number 43 is possible with 10% error from 2-methylbutane. This new technique was validated in an engine experiment. By running the engine with pure gasoline and E85, the validity of the technique can be checked.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properties of the Working Fluid in Internal-Combustion Engines

THE thermodynamic analysis of an internal-combustion engine, even in the idealized case, is in general more complex than a similar analysis of an engine cycle in which the fluid undergoes no chemical change. It is the purpose of this paper to show that, despite the inherent complexity of the problem, an exact solution by graphical methods is possible, and the method is very similar in nature to those used in connection with the Mollier diagram for steam. Two types of charts are presented, one descriptive of the thermodynamic properties of the airfuel mixture (and residual products of combustion) before combustion, the other descriptive of the properties of the equilibrium mixture after combustion. Full allowance is made for the variation of specific heats with temperature and for the complex dissociation at the high temperatures attained after combustion. All calculations are based on the most recent basic thermodynamic data available in the literature.
Journal Article

The Underlying Physics and Chemistry behind Fuel Sensitivity

Recent studies have shown that for a given RON, fuels with a higher sensitivity (RON-MON) tend to have better antiknock performance at most knock-limited conditions in modern engines. The underlying chemistry behind fuel sensitivity was therefore investigated to understand why this trend occurs. Chemical kinetic models were used to study fuels of varying sensitivities; in particular their autoignition delay times and chemical intermediates were compared. As is well known, non-sensitive fuels tend to be paraffins, while the higher sensitivity fuels tend to be olefins, aromatics, diolefins, napthenes, and alcohols. A more exact relationship between sensitivity and the fuel's chemical structure was not found to be apparent. High sensitivity fuels can have vastly different chemical structures. The results showed that the autoignition delay time (τ) behaved differently at different temperatures. At temperatures below 775 K and above 900 K, τ has a strong temperature dependence.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Sulfated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulfur on Diesel Aftertreatment Systems - A Review

This paper reviews the relevant literature on the effects of sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur on DPF, LNT, and SCR catalysts. Exhaust backpressure increase due to DPF ash accumulation, as well as the rate at which ash is consumed from the sump, were the most studied lubricant-derived DPF effects. Based on several studies, a doubling of backpressure can be estimated to occur within 270,000 to 490,000 km when using a 1.0% sulfated ash oil. Postmortem DPF analysis and exhaust gas measurements revealed that approximately 35% to 65% less ash was lost from the sump than was expected based on bulk oil consumption estimates. Despite significant effects from lubricant sulfur and phosphorus, loss of LNT NOX reduction efficiency is dominated by fuel sulfur effects. Phosphorus has been determined to have a mild poisoning effect on SCR catalysts. The extent of the effect that lubricant phosphorus and sulfur have on DOCs remains unclear, however, it appears to be minor.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Motion and Laminar Flame Speed on Late Robust Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

The effects of charge motion and laminar flame speeds on combustion and exhaust temperature have been studied by using an air jet in the intake flow to produce an adjustable swirl or tumble motion, and by replacing the nitrogen in the intake air by argon or CO₂, thereby increasing or decreasing the laminar flame speed. The objective is to examine the "Late Robust Combustion" concept: whether there are opportunities for producing a high exhaust temperature using retarded combustion to facilitate catalyst warm-up, while at the same time, keeping an acceptable cycle-to-cycle torque variation as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV) of the net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP). The operating condition of interest is at the fast idle period of a cold start with engine speed at 1400 RPM and NIMEP at 2.6 bar. A fast burn could be produced by appropriate charge motion. The combustion phasing is primarily a function of the spark timing.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Operating Conditions at Idle in the S.I. Engine

A gasoline engine with an electronically controlled fuel injection system has substantially better fuel economy and lower emissions than a carburetted engine. In general, the stability of engine operation is improved with fuel injector, but the stability of engine operation at idle is not improved compared with a carburetted gasoline engine. In addition, the increase in time that an engine is at idle due to traffic congestion has an effect on the engine stability and vehicle reliability. Therefore, in this research, we will study the influence of fuel injection timing, spark timing, dwell angle, and air-fuel ratio on engine stability at idle.
Technical Paper

The Anatomy of Knock

The combustion process after auto-ignition is investigated. Depending on the non-uniformity of the end gas, auto-ignition could initiate a flame, produce pressure waves that excite the engine structure (acoustic knock), or result in detonation (normal or developing). For the “acoustic knock” mode, a knock intensity (KI) is defined as the pressure oscillation amplitude. The KI values over different cycles under a fixed operating condition are observed to have a log-normal distribution. When the operating condition is changed (over different values of λ, EGR, and spark timing), the mean (μ) of log (KI/GIMEP) decreases linearly with the correlation-based ignition delay calculated using the knock-point end gas condition of the mean cycle. The standard deviation σ of log(KI/GIMEP) is approximately a constant, at 0.63. The values of μ and σ thus allow a statistical description of knock from the deterministic calculation of the ignition delay using the mean cycle properties
Journal Article

Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation

Mechanisms of NH₃ generation using LNT-like catalysts have been studied in a bench reactor over a wide range of temperatures, flow rates, reformer catalyst types and synthetic exhaust-gas compositions. The experiments showed that the on board production of sufficient quantities of ammonia on board for SCR operation appeared feasible, and the results identified the range of conditions for the efficient generation of ammonia. In addition, the effects of reformer catalysts using the water-gas-shift reaction as an in-situ source of the required hydrogen for the reactions are also illustrated. Computations of the NH₃ and NOx kinetics have also been carried out and are presented. Design and impregnation of the SCR catalyst in proximity to the ammonia source is the next logical step. A heated synthetic-exhaust gas flow bench was used for the experiments under carefully controlled simulated exhaust compositions.
Journal Article

Speciated Engine-Out Organic Gas Emissions from a PFI-SI Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

Engine-out HC emissions from a PFI spark ignition engine were measured using a gas chromatograph and a flame ionization detector (FID). Two port fuel injectors were used respectively for ethanol and gasoline so that the delivered fuel was comprised of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (by volume) of ethanol. Tests were run at 1.5, 3.8 and 7.5 bar NIMEP and two speeds (1500 and 2500 rpm). The main species identified with pure gasoline were partial reaction products (e.g. methane and ethyne) and aromatics, whereas with ethanol/gasoline mixtures, substantial amounts of ethanol and acetaldehyde were detected. Indeed, using pure ethanol, 74% of total HC moles were oxygenates. In addition, the molar ratio of ethanol to acetaldehyde was determined to be 5.5 to 1. The amount (as mole fraction of total HC moles) of exhaust aromatics decreased linearly with increasing ethanol in the fuel, while oxygenate species correspondingly increased.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Piston Ring Friction and Oil Film Thickness Measurements in a Reciprocating Test Rig

A reciprocating test apparatus was constructed in which the friction of a single piston ring against a liner segment was measured. The lubrication oil film thickness was also measured simultaneously at the mid stroke of the ring travel using a laser fluorescence technique. The apparatus development and operation are described. Results are presented from a test matrix consisting of five different lubrication oils of viscosity (at 30°C) ranging from 49 to 357 cP; at three mean piston speeds of 0.45, 0.89 and 1.34 m/s; and at three ring normal loading of 1.4, 2.9 and 5.7 MPa. At mid stroke, the oil film thickness under the ring was ∼0.5 to 4 μm; the frictional coefficient was ∼0.02 to 0.1. The frictional coefficient for all the lubricants tested increased with normal load, and decreased with piston velocity. Both mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes were observed. The friction behaviors were consistent with the Stribeck diagram.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis of Ash Packing and Distribution in Diesel Particulate Filters to Transient Changes in Exhaust Conditions

Current CJ-4 lubricant specifications place chemical limits on diesel engine oil formulations to minimize the accumulation of lubricant-derived ash in diesel particulate filters (DPF). While lubricant additive chemistry plays a strong role in determining the amount and type of ash accumulated in the DPF, a number of additional factors play important roles as well. Relative to soot particles, whose residence time in the DPF is short-lived, ash particles remain in the filter for a significant fraction of the filter's useful life. While it is well-known that the properties (packing density, porosity, permeability) of soot deposits are primarily controlled by the local exhaust conditions at the time of particle deposition in the DPF, the cumulative operating history of the filter plays a much stronger role in controlling the properties and distribution of the accumulated ash.
Technical Paper

Scavenging the 2-Stroke Engine

THE indicated output of a 2-stroke engine is primarily dependent upon the success with which the products of combustion are driven from the cylinder and are replaced by fresh air or mixture during the scavenging period. Such replacement must, of course, be accomplished with a minimum of blower power. This paper deals with various aspects of 2-stroke research conducted at M.I.T. during the past 10 years. Among the subjects discussed are the methods used in the prediction and measurement of scavenging efficiency, and the effect of engine design and operating variables on the scavenging blower requirements as reflected by the scavenging ratio.
Technical Paper

Reliable Processes of Simulating Liner Roughness and Its Lubrication Properties

Topology of liner finish is critical to the performance of internal combustion engines. Proper liner finish simulation processes lead to efficient engine design and research. Fourier methods have been well studied to numerically generate liner topology. However, three major issues wait to be addressed to make the generation processes feasible and reliable. First, in order to simulate real plateau honed liners, approaches should be developed to calculate accurate liner geometric parameters. These parameters are served as the input of the generation algorithm. Material ratio curve, the common geometry calculation method, should be modified so that accurate root mean square of plateau height distribution could be obtained. Second, the set of geometric parameters used in generating liner finish (ISO 13565-2) is different from the set of parameters used in manufacturing industry (ISO 13565-3). Quantitative relations between these two sets should be studied.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Cooling Loss in Hydrogen Combustion by Direct Injection Stratified Charge

Hydrogen can be readily used in spark-ignition engines as a clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a larger burning velocity and a shorter quenching distance for hydrogen as compared with hydrocarbons bring a larger cooling loss from burning gas to the combustion-chamber wall. Because of the large cooling loss, the thermal efficiency of a hydrogen-fueled engine is sometimes lower than that of a conventionally fueled engine. Therefore, the reduction of the cooling loss is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen-combustion engines. On the other hand, the direct-injection stratified charge can suppress knocking in spark-ignition engines at near stoichiometric overall mixture conditions. Because this is attributed to a leaner end gas, the stratification can lead to a lowered temperature of burning gas around the wall and a reduced cooling loss.
Journal Article

Reduction of Cold-Start Emissions through Valve Timing in a GDI Engine

This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate mass and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. Early exhaust valve phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust valve phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
Technical Paper

Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-On-Demand Fuel System

Higher compression ratio and turbocharging, with engine downsizing can enable significant gains in fuel economy but require engine operating conditions that cause engine knock under high load. Engine knock can be avoided by supplying higher-octane fuel under such high load conditions. This study builds on previous MIT papers investigating Octane-On-Demand (OOD) to enable a higher efficiency, higher-boost higher compression-ratio engine. The high-octane fuel for OOD can be obtained through On-Board-Separation (OBS) of alcohol blended gasoline. Fuel from the primary fuel tank filled with commercially available gasoline that contains 10% by volume ethanol (E10) is separated by an organic membrane pervaporation process that produces a 30 to 90% ethanol fuel blend for use when high octane is needed. In addition to previous work, this paper combines modeling of the OBS system with passenger car and medium-duty truck fuel consumption and octane requirements for various driving cycles.
Journal Article

Primary Reference Fuel Behavior in a HCCI Engine near the Low-Load Limit

In a previous study, a wide range of gasolines with RON∼90 were tested in a single cylinder engine operated in HCCI mode using negative valve overlap, and all were found to have very similar behavior near the low-load limit. Here we broaden the range of gasolines to include PRF90 and PRF60. At high engine speed, both PRF60 and PRF90 behave similarly to all the other gasolines tested. However, at 1000 RPM, PRF90 is very different from all the other gasolines: it ignites very late, and the engine cannot be operated at low load. Simulations using a popular fuel chemistry model cannot distinguish PRF60 and PRF90 under these conditions. However, a new fuel chemistry model correctly shows the onset of fuel sensitivity at low engine speed. Sensitivity analyses indicate the low-load limit at low engine speed strongly depend on both the chemistry parameters and on the heat-transfer parameters.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Knock Limit and Viable Operating Range for a Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engine

A method is presented for predicting the viable operating range of homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. A fundamental criterion for predicting HCCI knock is described and used to predict the minimum air/fuel ratio (and hence maximum torque) available from the engine. The lean (misfire) limit is computed using a modification of the multi-zone method of Aceves et al. [1]. Numerical improvements are described which allow even very complex fuel chemistry to be rapidly modeled on a standard PC. The viable operating range for an HCCI engine burning a primary reference fuel (PRF 95) is predicted and compared with literature experimental data. The new ability to accurately predict the operating range for any given HCCI engine/fuel combination should considerably simplify the tasks of designing a robust engine and identifying suitable fuels for HCCI.