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Technical Paper

Unsteady-Wake Analysis of the Aerodynamic Drag of a Notchback Model with Critical Afterbody Geometry

For both notchback-type and fastback-type models, it has been found that critical geometries which increase the aerodynamic drag exist, and the time-averaged wake patterns basically consist of an arch vortex behind the rear window and trailing vortices in the wake. The unsteady characteristics of the wake seem to be directly related to aerodynamic drag. However, the unsteady characteristics of these wake patterns for notchback and fastback cars were not clear. The purpose of present paper is to clarify these phenomena. We try to analyze experimentally the unsteady characteristics by measuring the velocity fluctuations in the wake, the pressure fluctuations on the trunk deck and the drag-force fluctuations acting on the model. At the same time, the analysis of the numerical simulation was made by using the same numerical model as the experimental model. The computed flow visualization behind the rear window showed a fluctuating arch vortex.
Technical Paper

Planar Measurements of OH Radicals in an S.I. Engine Based on Laser Induced Flourescence

The planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was applied to two dimensional visualization of OH radicals in a combustion flame. A frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser pumped dye laser was used to form a laser light sheet which excited the OH X2Π-A2Σ transition. A fluorescence image of the OH radical and a visible image of a combustion flame were simultaneously imaged by a pair of CCD cameras with image intensifiers. Measurement of the OH radical in the combustion flame could be carried out by using this PLIF technique without Mie scattering lights from soot particles and other optical disturbances. The PLIF technique was employed to study the OH radical in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (S. I.) engine using gasoline as fuel. Measurements of the OH radical fluorescence were carried out under various operating conditions of mass burned fraction, swirl ratio and air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Mazda 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for the Le Mans 24-Hour Endurance Race

The “R26B” 4-rotor rotary engine is a powerplant that brought a Mazda racing car to victory in the 1991 Le Mans 24-hour endurance race. This engine was developed to achieve high levels of power output, fuel efficiency, and reliability, as required of endurance racing engines. This paper describes the basic structure of the engine, including a 3-piece eccentric shaft that represents a major technological achievement incorporated in the engine, as well as other technological innovations employed for the enhancement of the engine's power output and reliability, and for reducing its fuel consumption. These innovations include a telescopic intake manifold system, peripheral port injection, 3-plug ignition system, 2-piece ceramic apex seal, and a cermet coating on the rubbed surfaces of the housings.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Aerodynamic Behavior of a Three-Dimensional Car Configuration

Three-dimensional flows around a car configuration, a Mazda RX-7, were computed by directly integrating the governing unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A well-established finite-difference procedure was utilized. The basic equations were formulated in a generalized coordinate system. A third-order upwind scheme was applied to discretize the equations, and the numerical solutions were acquired without using any explicit turbulence models. Elaborate numerical results were presented at a high Reynolds number, Re=106 (based on the body length). In order to investigate the influence of the cross wind, computations were carried out for two yaw angles, i.e., 0 degree and 30 degrees. Extensive flow visualizations, using state-of-the-art computer graphics, were performed; details of the three-dimensional flow structure were examined. Well-controlled wind tunnel experiments were also conducted.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ambient Air Entrainment into Split Injection D.I. Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV Technique

Effects of split injection, with a relatively short time interval between the two sprays, on the spray development process, and the air entrainment into the spray, were investigated by using laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) techniques. The velocities of the spray and the ambient air were measured. The cumulative mass of the ambient air entrained into the spray was calculated by using the entrainment velocity normal to the spray boundary. The vortex structure of the spray, formed around the leading edge of the spray, showed a true rotating flow motion at low ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, whereas at 0.4 MPa, it was not a true rotating flow, but a phenomenon of the small droplets separating from the leading edge of the spray and falling behind, due to air resistance. The development processes of the 2nd spray were considerably different from that of the 1st spray because the 2nd spray was injected into the flow fields formed by the 1st spray.
Technical Paper

A Study About In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion in a 4-Valve S.I. Engine

Lean-burn technology is now being reviewed again in view of demands for higher efficiency and cleanness in internal combustion engines. The improvement of combustion using in-cylinder gas flow control is the fundamental technology for establishing lean-burn technology, but the great increase in main combustion velocity due to intensifying of turbulence causes a deterioration in performance such as increase in heat loss and N0x. Thus, it is desirable to improve combustion stability while suppressing the increase in main burn velocity as much as possible (1). It is expected that the fluid characteristics of the in-cylinder tumbling motion that the generated vortices during intake stroke breake down in end-half of compression stroke will satisfy the above requisition. This study is concerned with the effects of enhancing of tumble intensity on combustion in 4-valve S. I. engines.