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Technical Paper

Investigation of Increase in Aerodynamic Drag Caused by a Passing Vehicle

On-road turbulences caused by sources such as atmospheric wind and other vehicles influence the flow field and increases the drag in a vehicle. In this study, we focused on a scenario involving a passing vehicle and investigated its effect on the physical mechanism of the drag increase in order to establish a technique for reducing this drag. Firstly, we conducted on-road measurements of two sedan-type vehicles passed by a truck. Their aerodynamic drag estimated from the base pressure measurements showed different increment when passed by the truck. This result raised the possibility of reducing the drag increase by a modification of the local geometry. Then, we conducted wind tunnel measurements of a simplified one-fifth scale vehicle model in quasi-steady state, in order to understand the flow mechanism of the drag increase systematically.
Journal Article

Flow Structures above the Trunk Deck of Sedan-Type Vehicles and Their Influence on High-Speed Vehicle Stability 2nd Report: Numerical Investigation on Simplified Vehicle Models using Large-Eddy Simulation

In the present study, two kinds of simplified vehicle models, which can reproduce flow structures around the two sedan-type vehicles in the previous study, are constructed for the object and the unsteady flow structures are extracted using Large-Eddy Simulation technique. The numerical results are validated in a stationary condition by comparing the results with a wind-tunnel experiment and details of steady and unsteady flow characteristics around the models, especially above the trunk deck, are investigated. In quasi- and non- stationary manner with regard to vehicle pitch motion, unsteady flow characteristics are also investigated and their relations to an aerodynamic stability are discussed.
Journal Article

Flow Structures above the Trunk Deck of Sedan-Type Vehicles and Their Influence on High-Speed Vehicle Stability 1st Report: On-Road and Wind-Tunnel Studies on Unsteady Flow Characteristics that Stabilize Vehicle Behavior

This study shows an example in which the conventional aerodynamic evaluation method that focuses on “steady” aerodynamic lift coefficient is not necessarily sufficient to evaluate vehicle's straight-ahead stability at high speed, and proposes a new aerodynamic evaluation method for vehicle stability. In vehicle development, it is generally said that vehicle with lower aerodynamic lift coefficient has better straight-ahead stability at high speed. However, in some cases, straight-ahead stability differs between two vehicles with similar low aerodynamic lift coefficient. It is natural to think that this variation is caused by the difference of suspension characteristics or vehicle body rigidity. But from our experiences, different straight-ahead stability was observed between two vehicles having same suspension characteristics, same vehicle body rigidity and almost similar aerodynamic lift coefficient, but different vehicle configurations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Aerodynamic Noise Generated in Production Vehicle Using Experiment and Numerical Simulation

Aerodynamic noise generated in production vehicle has been evaluated using experiment and numerical simulation. Finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) are applied to analyze the flow field, and Lighthill's analogy is employed to conduct acoustic analysis. The flow fields around front-pillar obtained by numerical simulations agree with those by experiment for two cases with different front-pillar shape. Moreover, the distribution of acoustic source predicted by FEM is consistent with that obtained by experiment. Present study ascertained the feasibility and applicability of FEM with SGS model towards prediction of aerodynamic noise generated in production vehicle.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics Evaluation of Road Vehicles in Dynamic Maneuvering

A road vehicle’s cornering motion is known to be a compound motion composed mainly of forward, sideslip and yaw motions. But little is known about the aerodynamics of cornering because little study has been conducted in this field. By clarifying and understanding a vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics during cornering, a vehicle’s maneuvering stability during high-speed driving can be aerodynamically improved. Therefore, in this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of a vehicle’s cornering motion, i.e. the compound motion of forward, sideslip and yaw motions, were investigated. We also considered proposing an aerodynamics evaluation method for vehicles in dynamic maneuvering. Firstly, we decomposed cornering motion into yaw and sideslip motions. Then, we assumed that the aerodynamic side force and yaw moment of a cornering motion could be expressed by superposing linear expressions of yaw motion parameters and those of sideslip motion parameters, respectively.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Pitching Stability of Sedan-Type Vehicles Influenced by Pillar-Shape Configurations

The present study investigated the aerodynamic pitching stability of sedan-type vehicles under the influence of A- and C-pillar geometrical configurations. The numerical method used for the investigation is based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method. Whilst, the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method was employed to realize the prescribed pitching oscillation of vehicles during dynamic pitching and fluid flow coupled simulations. The trailing vortices that shed from the A-pillar and C-pillar edges produced the opposite tendencies on how they affect the aerodynamic pitching stability of vehicles. In particular, the vortex shed from the A-pillar edge tended to enhance the pitching oscillation of vehicle, while the vortex shed from the C-pillar edge tended to suppress it. Hence, the vehicle with rounded A-pillar and angular C-pillar exhibited a higher aerodynamic damping than the vehicle with the opposite A- and C-pillars configurations.