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Technical Paper

Ventilation Characteristics of Modeled Compact Car Part 6 - Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer Characteristics by CRI

In the present study, numerical simulation coupling convection and radiation in vehicle was done to analyze the formation of the temperature field under the non-uniform thermal condition. The scaled cabin model of simplified compact car was used and the thermal condition was determined. The fore floor, the top side of the inst. panel, the front window and the ceiling were heat source. The lateral side walls were cooled by the outdoor air and the other surfaces were adiabatic. It is same with the experimental condition presented in Part 5. In order to analyze the individual influence of each heat source, Contribution Ratio of Indoor climate (CRI) index was used. CRI is defined as the ratio of the temperature rise at a point from one individual heat source to the temperature rise under the perfect mixing conditions for the same heat source.
Technical Paper

Thixomolding® of Magnesium Automotive Components

Thixomolding® produces net-shape parts from Magnesium alloys in a single step process involving high speed injection molding of semi-solid thixotropic alloys. A description of the process and status of commercial developments will be presented.. The mechanical properties and microstructures of Thixomolded® AZ-91D magnesium materials will be presented. Tensile strengths of semi-solid AZ-91D at both room temperature and elevated temperatures ( 373K, 423K) are compared with die cast AZ-91D. Data on enhanced creep properties of Thixomolded® AZ91-D alloy relative to die cast AZ-91D will be examined with respect to relative changes in microstructural features. Controlling the percent solids in the semi-solid state prior to injection molding can lead to improved creep performance for use in net-shape automotive components.
Technical Paper

The Complex Cornering Compliance Theory and its Application to Vehicle Dynamics Characteristics

The Complex Cornering Compliance (Complex CC) theory is a method to cascade desired vehicle dynamics characteristics into suspension / steering system applying the Equivalent Cornering Power based on a single track model. Complex CC is used to find front / rear slip angle and time constant after converting the system elements into complex numbers as “slip angle per 1g (gravity) of lateral acceleration and occurrence time”. This enables an analysis of the contribution rate of the slip angle and time constant on the system elements and the impact on lateral force.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Observation of Combustion in Optical Rotary Engine by Bottom View and Side View

Combustion behavior in Rotary Engine (RE) is quite different from that in conventional reciprocating engines. Therefore, it is important to observe the combustion in RE. In the previous studies, an optical RE was developed, which enabled the observation of the flame propagation in the rotor rotating direction (side view). In the present study, modification was made to the optical RE so that the observation of the flame propagation in the rotor width direction (bottom view) became possible. By using two high-speed cameras, the combustion in RE was observed by bottom view and side view simultaneously. Consequently, it was found that the flame propagation in the rotor width direction is also important for better engine performance as well as that in the rotor rotating direction.
Technical Paper

Introduction of Gear Noise Reduction Ring by Mechanism Analysis Including FEM Dynamic Tuning

Reduction of transmission error by gear tooth profile optimization and tuning of gear resonance modes are known as effective methods for gear noise reduction. This paper concentrates on structuring a process for reducing gear noise using the latter method. The procedure comprises a study of gear noise mechanism from transmission error to radiation noise, an application of Steyer's method in gear frequency analysis and implementation of an invented device called “noise reduction ring”. This inexpensive and practical ring reduces gear noise drastically by 10dB, which is predicted by the simulation and verified by the experiment.
Journal Article

Flow Structures above the Trunk Deck of Sedan-Type Vehicles and Their Influence on High-Speed Vehicle Stability 2nd Report: Numerical Investigation on Simplified Vehicle Models using Large-Eddy Simulation

In the present study, two kinds of simplified vehicle models, which can reproduce flow structures around the two sedan-type vehicles in the previous study, are constructed for the object and the unsteady flow structures are extracted using Large-Eddy Simulation technique. The numerical results are validated in a stationary condition by comparing the results with a wind-tunnel experiment and details of steady and unsteady flow characteristics around the models, especially above the trunk deck, are investigated. In quasi- and non- stationary manner with regard to vehicle pitch motion, unsteady flow characteristics are also investigated and their relations to an aerodynamic stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Analysis of High Frequency Gear Whine Noise by Using an Inverse Boundary Element Method

Some of the frequencies of transmission gear whine noise reach up to several kHz. High-frequency gear whine noise is mostly transmitted by air (airborne); therefore, it is critical to reduce transmission radiation noise. This paper presents how to solve the problem of high-frequency noise in the range of 2.0 - 4.1kHz by experiment using Inverse Boundary Element Method (IBEM) and by computer simulation using Boundary Element Method (BEM).
Technical Paper

An Approach for Improving Correlation of Solid Finite Element Models

The quest to simulate noise problems has led to the building of larger and more detailed finite element models in order to perform vibration solutions to higher frequencies. This leads to the building of solid finite element models of complex geometries, such as castings, which might previously have contained less detail or even been built with shell elements. Unfortunately, detailed geometric representations used to build models do not always agree with as built parts and lead to discrepancies between analysis results and test data. This paper presents an approach that reduces the time and cost necessary to identify these differences.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics Evaluation of Road Vehicles in Dynamic Maneuvering

A road vehicle’s cornering motion is known to be a compound motion composed mainly of forward, sideslip and yaw motions. But little is known about the aerodynamics of cornering because little study has been conducted in this field. By clarifying and understanding a vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics during cornering, a vehicle’s maneuvering stability during high-speed driving can be aerodynamically improved. Therefore, in this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of a vehicle’s cornering motion, i.e. the compound motion of forward, sideslip and yaw motions, were investigated. We also considered proposing an aerodynamics evaluation method for vehicles in dynamic maneuvering. Firstly, we decomposed cornering motion into yaw and sideslip motions. Then, we assumed that the aerodynamic side force and yaw moment of a cornering motion could be expressed by superposing linear expressions of yaw motion parameters and those of sideslip motion parameters, respectively.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Pitching Stability of Sedan-Type Vehicles Influenced by Pillar-Shape Configurations

The present study investigated the aerodynamic pitching stability of sedan-type vehicles under the influence of A- and C-pillar geometrical configurations. The numerical method used for the investigation is based on the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method. Whilst, the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method was employed to realize the prescribed pitching oscillation of vehicles during dynamic pitching and fluid flow coupled simulations. The trailing vortices that shed from the A-pillar and C-pillar edges produced the opposite tendencies on how they affect the aerodynamic pitching stability of vehicles. In particular, the vortex shed from the A-pillar edge tended to enhance the pitching oscillation of vehicle, while the vortex shed from the C-pillar edge tended to suppress it. Hence, the vehicle with rounded A-pillar and angular C-pillar exhibited a higher aerodynamic damping than the vehicle with the opposite A- and C-pillars configurations.