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Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Mg AZ80 Alloy Forging Behaviour

Magnesium AZ80 is a medium strength alloy with good corrosion resistance and very good forging capability which offers an affordable commercial alternative to the Mg ZK60 alloy used for wheels in racing cars. Extending the market of Mg AZ80 alloy to automotive wheels requires a better understanding of macro- and micro-properties of this structural material, especially its forging behaviour. In this study the deformation behaviour of Mg AZ80 alloy is characterized by uniaxial compression tests from ambient to 420°C at a variety of strain rates using a Gleeble 1500 simulator. A constitutive relationship coupling materials work hardening and strain rate and temperature dependences is calibrated based on test results. This flow behaviour is input into a finite element model to simulate the forging operation of an automotive wheel with ABAQUS codes.
Technical Paper

Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Sheets and Their Resistance Spot Welds at Large Strains Using Digital Image Correlation Coupled with a Modified Shear Test

The constitutive behavior of aluminum alloy sheet and their resistance spot welds at large strains is critical for light weight vehicle design analysis and life prediction. However, data from uniaxial tensile tests are usually limited to small strains or by material instability. A novel technique was developed using digital image correlation coupled with a modified shear test to directly measure the stress - strain curves of aluminum alloy sheet at large strains. The modified shear sample prevents end rotation of the shear zone as compared to the ASTM B831 test. The results show that the effective stress - effective strain curves from shear tests match those obtained by uniaxial tension, but only by incorporating material anisotropy using the Barlat-Lian yield function. For the first time, the technique was applied to aluminum resistance spot welds to determine both the shear strength and stress-strain curves of spot welds at large strains.
Technical Paper

Formability of an Automotive Aluminum Alloy-AA5754 CC

We have studied the formability of continuous strip cast (CC) AA5754 aluminum alloy for automotive applications. Strip casting technology can considerably reduce material cost compared with conventional direct chill (DC) cast aluminum sheets. However, the CC material tends to exhibit much less post-localization deformation and lower fracture strains compared with DC sheets with similar Fe content, although both alloys show similar strains for the onset of localization. Bendability of the CC alloy is also found to be inferior. The inferior behavior (post-necking and bendability) of the CC alloy can be attributed to the higher incidence of stringer-type particle distributions in the alloy. The formability of the AA5754 alloy has also been studied using two dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling. The microstructures are represented by grains and experimentally measured particle distributions.
Technical Paper

Detection of Injected Urea Quantity and Correction for SCR Urea Dosing Control

Using urea-based Selected Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems is an effective way in diesel engine after-treatment systems to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations. The amount of urea injection is critical to achieve high NOx reduction efficiency and low ammonia slip and overdosing or under-dosing of urea injection need to be avoided. One of the difficulties in urea injection amount control lies in the accurate measurement/estimation of the urea injection mass. To effectively address this issue, this paper defined a correction factor for under-dosing or overdosing detection and correction and proposed two methods to identify the correction factor. The first method is based on urea pump model and line pressure. Through frequency analysis, the relation between the urea pump speed and power spectrum characteristics of the line pressure by using FFT method was revealed.
Technical Paper

Comparative Corrosion Evaluation of Ferritic Stainless Steels Utilized in Automotive Exhaust Applications

The purpose of this work was to initiate a comparative evaluation of the aqueous corrosion resistance of ferritic stainless steels currently used to fabricate automotive exhaust systems. Both acid condensate and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) testing using both as-received and heat treated test coupons prepared from Types 409, 409Al, 436 and 439 stainless steel was conducted for this purpose. A truncated version of an in-house acid condensate testing protocol revealed that Type 409Al stainless steel was the most resistant to corrosion of the four ferritic stainless steels examined, whereas Type 409 stainless steel was the least resistance to corrosion.
Technical Paper

Comparative Corrosion Assessment of Coated Alloys for Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle Architectures

The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative corrosion assessment of alloys and coating schemes of interest for the fabrication of multi-material lightweight vehicle architectures. Alloys considered for this application included galvanized high strength low alloy steel, aluminum alloy AA6111 and magnesium alloy ZEK100. The coating scheme considered for corrosion protection included a layered paint top-coat scheme that was applied to a pre-treated surface. The pre-treatments included an alloy-specific commercial conversion coating (CC) and a plasma electrolytic deposition (PED) process that was applied only to the ZEK100 material. The corrosion assessment of the scribed coated alloy panels was conducted after 1000 h exposure in the ASTM B117 salt fog environment. Characterization of the mode and extent of corrosion damage observed and the role played by the exposed alloy microstructure utilized both light optical microscopy and electron microscopy.