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Technical Paper

Tumble and Swirl Quantification within a Motored Four-Valve SI Engine Cylinder Based on 3-D LDV Measurements

The flow field contained within ten planes inside a cylinder of a 3.5 liter, 24-valve, V-6 engine was mapped using a three-dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3-D LDV) system. A total of 1,548 LDV measurement locations were used to construct the time history of the in-cylinder flow fields during the intake and compression strokes. The measurements began during the intake stroke at a crank angle of 60° ATDC and continued until approximately 280° ATDC. The ensemble averaged LDV measurements allowed for a quantitative analysis of the dynamic in-cylinder flow process in terms of tumble and swirl motions. Both of these quantities were calculated at every 1.8 crank degrees during the described measurement interval. Tumble calculations were performed about axes in multiple planes in both the Cartesian directions perpendicular to the plane of the piston top. Swirl calculations were also accomplished in multiple planes that lie parallel to the plane of the piston top.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Injection Pressure on Spray and Combustion Characteristics in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

A single-cylinder gasoline direct-injection engine was used for fuel spray and combustion visualizations with optical access to the combustion chamber. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fuel injection pressure on spray and combustion characteristics inside the engine cylinder. A multi-hole high-pressure production injector was used with fuel pressures of 5 and 10 MPa. A Mie scattering technique was used to image the liquid phase of the fuel dispersion. The obtained spray images were then used to study the macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray structure, spray tip penetration and spray angle. Combustion visualization tests were performed to evaluate the effect of fuel injection pressure on combustion characteristics. In-cylinder pressure signals were recorded for the combustion analyses and synchronized with the high-speed combustion imaging recording.
Technical Paper

Some Effects of Spark Plug Electrode Geometry and Orientation on Small-Engine Emissions

In the design of small off-highway and utility engines for compliance with increasingly stringent emissions standards, one component which can potentially reduce engine exhaust-gas emissions without necessitating changes in other, more costly parts is the spark plug. From studies carried out in automobile engines, benefits have been reported when using different spark-plug electrode shapes or when aligning the plugs in the cylinder head in preferred directions. However, these benefits, observed in automotive overhead valve engines with well-mixed charges, have generally been modest? and spark plugs of conventional shape remain the most widely used today. In the case of off-highway and utility engines, which operate at substantially higher air-fuel ratios, often with poorly-mixed charges, the potential for improving performance by changing spark-plug shape has not been explored.
Technical Paper

Quantification of volumetric in-cylinder flow of SI engine usign 3D laser doppler velocimetry

The flow inside of an internal combustion engine is highly complex and varies greatly among different engine types. For a long time IC engine researchers have tried to classify the major mean flow patterns and turbulence characteristics using different measurement techniques. During the last three decades tumble and swirl numbers have gained increasing popularity in mean flow quantification while turbulent kinetic energy has been used for the measurement of turbulence in the cylinder. In this paper, simultaneous 3-D LDV measurements of the in-cylinder flows of the three different engines are summarized for the quantification of the flow characteristics. The ensemble averaged velocity, tumble and swirl motions, and turbulence kinetic energy during the intake and compression strokes were examined from the measured velocity data (approximately 2,000 points for each case) by the 3-D LDV system.
Journal Article

High-Speed Flow and Combustion Visualization to Study the Effects of Charge Motion Control on Fuel Spray Development and Combustion Inside a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

An experimental study is performed to investigate the effects of charge motion control on in-cylinder fuel-air mixture preparation and combustion inside a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with optical access to the cylinder. High-pressure production injector is used with fuel pressures of 5 and 10 MPa. Three different geometries of charge motion control (CMC) device are considered; two are expected to enhance the swirl motion inside the engine cylinder whereas the third one is expected to enhance the tumble motion. Experiments are performed at 1500 rpm engine speed with the variation in fuel injection timing, fuel pressure and the number of injections. It is found that swirl-type CMC devices significantly enhance the fuel-air mixing inside the engine cylinder with slower spray tip penetration than that of the baseline case without CMC device. Combustion images show that the flame growth is faster with CMC device compared to the similar case without CMC device.
Technical Paper

Fiber Optic Imaging System for Remote Location Flow Visualization Studies

The purpose of this work was to develop a fiber optic imaging system for use in flow visualization studies at the Michigan State University Engine Research Laboratory. A flexible fiber optic image carrier was coupled with a high speed rotating prism camera to create a unique imaging system which can easily reach remote location test sites. The flow visualization study was conducted on a motored 3.5 L four-valve engine test rig. A 40 watt pulsed copper vapor laser was synchronized with the camera to produce motion picture film at 5000 frames per second (fps). The image carrier which is attached to the camera contained an 80 degree field of view (FOV) tip adapter for viewing the entire cross-sectional area of the cylinder. The area imaged was a radial plane located 3 cm from the intake valves. The engine rig was motored at 850 rpm with a flow rate of 18 kg/hr. Entrained microballoon seeding particles were filmed as they traveled through the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Flow Study in a Catalytic Converter Using Laser Doppler Velocimetry and High Speed Flow Visualization

Internal flow characteristics of a close coupled catalytic converter were examined by LDV measurements and high speed flow visualization. Although previous studies have been done on catalytic converters, they were conducted at steady state and using water flow seeded with a small quantity of tracer particles. The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of dynamic flows inside catalytic converters. The high speed flow visualization films and LDV results showed that areas of separation and circulation were present in the inlet region of the converter. Backflows into the neck of the converter were also observed. Each cylinder exhausted into a different region of the converter, with the front-middle region having the heaviest amount of flow. Large bursts of flow were created by each cylinder, while other regions of the inlet region showed backflows or very low flow rates. The midsection of the converter had a more uniform overall flow pattern.
Technical Paper

Application of LIPA (Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry) to the Water Analog Model of a Four-Stroke IC Engine

Our research contributes to the overall attempt to gain knowledge of the fluid dynamical processes in engines by applying a new measurement technique called LIPA (Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry). It concentrates on detecting fundamental flow and mixing mechanisms by performing experiments on the induction stroke in an axisymmetric motored water analog model of a four stroke IC engine. We present results of the investigations done at an engine speed of 20 RPM in water (corresponding to 340 RPM in air) at three different valve lifts (3, 6, and 9 mm). Maps containing velocity vectors depict in 2D a toroidal recirculation pattern that scales with cylinder volume and they suggest that the recirculation pattern possesses the highest degree of order -- thus least mixing -- for 9 mm valve lift and the lowest for 3 mm valve lift. A fluid dynamic model on the basis of freestream jet characteristics has been proposed to account for this phenomenon.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of In-Cylinder Air Flow in a 3.5L Four-Valve SI Engine by High Speed Flow Visualization and Two-Component LDV Measurement

In-cylinder flows in four-valve SI engines were examined by high frame rate flow visualization and two-component LDV measurement. It is believed that the tumble and swirl motion generated during intake breaks down into small-scale turbulence later in the cycle. The exact nature of this relationship is not well known. However, control of the turbulence offers control of the combustion process. To develop a better physical understanding of the in-cylinder flow, the effects of the cylinder head intake port configuration and the piston geometry were examined. For the present study, a 3.5L, four-valve engine was modified to be mounted on an AVL single cylinder research engine type 520. A quartz cylinder was fabricated for optical access to the in-cylinder flow. Piston rings were replaced by Rulon-LD rings. A Rulon-LD ring is advantageous for the optical access as it requires no lubrication.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.