Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0911
As demand for wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular their pressure drop, under a wide range of operating conditions bears significant engineering applications. In this work, validation of a model and development of a simulator for predicting the pressure drop of clean and particulate-loaded DPFs are presented. The model, based on a previously developed theory, has been validated extensively in this work. The validation range includes utilizing a large matrix of wall-flow filters varying in their size, cell density and wall thickness, each positioned downstream of light or heavy duty Diesel engines; it also covers a wide range of engine operating conditions such as engine load, flow rate, flow temperature and filter soot loading conditions. The validated model was then incorporated into a DPF pressure drop simulator.
Technical Paper

Two-Input Two-Output Control of Blended Fuel HCCI Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1663
Precise cycle-to-cycle control of combustion is the major challenge to reduce fuel consumption in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, while maintaining low emission levels. This paper outlines a framework for simultaneous control of HCCI combustion phasing and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) on a cycle-to-cycle basis. A dynamic control model is extended to predict behavior of HCCI engine by capturing main physical processes through an HCCI engine cycle. Performance of the model is validated by comparison with the experimental data from a single cylinder Ricardo engine. For 60 different steady state and transient HCCI conditions, the model predicts the combustion phasing and IMEP with average errors less than 1.4 CAD and 0.2 bar respectively. A two-input two-output controller is designed to control combustion phasing and IMEP by adjusting fuel equivalence ratio and blending ratio of two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs).
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation Part 2 – Model Validation Using Transient Data

1999-03-01
1999-01-0241
The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) computer code has been developed at the Michigan Technological University to simulate the thermal response of a cooling system for an on-highway heavy duty diesel powered truck under steady and transient operation. In Part 1 of this research, the code development and verification has been presented. The revised and enhanced VECSS (version 8.1) software is capable of simulating in real-time a Freightliner FLD 120 truck with a Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, Allied signal / Garrett Automotive charge air cooler and turbocharger, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch, DDC oil and coolant thermostat. Other cooling system components were run and compared with experimental data provided by Kysor Cooling Systems. The experimental data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Control's (DDEC) Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the Hewlett Packard (HP) data acquisition system.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Fuel Composition on the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1992-02-01
920854
The U.S. Bureau of Mines and Michigan Technological University are collaborating to conduct laboratory evaluations of oxidation catalytic converters (OCCs) and diesel fuels to identify combinations which minimize potentially harmful emissions. The purpose is to provide technical information concerning diesel exhaust emission control to the mining industry, regulators, and vendors of fuel and emission control devices. In this study, an Engelhard PTX 10 DVC (Ultra-10)* OCC was evaluated in the exhaust stream of an indirect injection Caterpillar 3304 PCNA mining engine using a light-duty laboratory transient cycle. This cycle was selected because it causes high emissions of particle-associated organics. Results are also reported for two different fuels with similar sulfur contents (0.03-0.04 wt pct) and a cetane number of 53, but different aromatic contents (11 vs. 20 wt pct).
Technical Paper

The Engineering Control of Diesel Pollutants in Underground Mining

1981-04-01
810684
A review of mine air pollutant standards and the important pollutants to control in underground mines using diesel powered equipment is presented. The underground Mine Air Quality Laboratory instrumentation is discussed. This includes the Mine Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML) and the instrumented Load Haul Dump (LHD) vehicle. The MAML measures CO, NO2, NO, CO2, particulate and temperatures while the LHD instrumentation measures and records engine speed, rack position (fuel rate), vehicle speed, CO2 concentration, exhaust temperature and operating mode with transducers and a Sea Data Corporation data logging and reader system. The mine LHD cycle data are related to the EPA 13 mode cycle data. Engine and aftertreatment emission control methods are reviewed including recent laboratory NO, NO2, sulfate and particulate data for a monolith catalyst. Maintenance of the LHD vehicle by engine subsystems in relation to component effects on emissions is presented.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygenated Biofuel on Intake Oxygen Concentration, EGR, and Performance of a 1.9L Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0868
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been employed in a diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions by diluting the fresh air charge with gases composed of primarily N2, CO2, H2O, and O2 from the engines exhaust stream. The addition of EGR reduces the production of NOx by lowering the peak cylinder gas temperature and reducing the concentration of O2 molecules, both of which contribute to the NOx formation mechanism. The amount of EGR has been typically controlled using an open loop control strategy where the flow of EGR was calibrated to the engine speed and load and controlled by the combination of an EGR valve and the ratio of the boost and exhaust back pressures. When oxygenated biofuels with lower specific energy are used, the engine control unit (ECU) will demand a higher fuel rate to maintain power output, which can alter the volumetric flow rate of EGR. In addition, oxygenated biofuels affect the oxygen concentration in the intake manifold gas stream.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Ambient Temperature and Vehicle Load on a Diesel Powered Truck Cooling System Performance Using a Computer Simulation Program

1984-11-01
841710
A computer simulation model to predict the thermal responses of an on-highway heavy duty diesel truck in transient operation was used to study several important cooling system design and operating variables. The truck used in this study was an International Harvester COF-9670 cab-over-chassis vehicle equipped with a McCord radiator, Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine, Kysor fan-clutch and shutter system, aftercooler, and standard cab heater and cooling system components. Input data from several portions of a Columbus to Bloomington, Indiana route were used from the Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) program to determine engine and vehicle operating conditions for the computer simulation model. The thermostat-fan, thermostat-shutter-fan, and thermostat-winterfront-fan systems were studied.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Ceramic Trap on Diesel Particulate: Fractions

1986-03-01
860620
A study of the Corning ceramic diesel particulate trap was conducted to investigate the trap's overall effect on diesel particulate fractions (soluble organic fraction. SOF; solid fraction, SOL; and sulfate fraction. SO4) under four different engine loads at 1680 rpm. The trap was found to filter the SOL fraction most efficiently with the SOF and SO4 fraction following in respective order. The filter efficiency of all fractions increased with increasing engine load. Graphs illustrating filter efficiency versus engine load indicate the slope of the SOF filter efficiency was smaller in magnitude than the TPM and SOL and SO4, fractions, which had similar slopes. The different slope of the SOF filter efficiency indicates other influences may be involved with the reduction in the SOF through the trap. Particle size distribution measurements in diluted exhaust revealed particle formation downstream of the trap.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel and Engine Design on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

1996-02-01
960131
The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H2O and H2SO4 vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine's particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075-0.046 μm) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H2O-H2SO4 particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of Ferrography to the Study of Diesel Engine Wear

1978-02-01
780181
This paper covers the development of Ferrographic oil analysis techniques for the study of diesel engine wear. A brief overview of the various wear analysis techniques now commonly used in laboratory and field engine wear studies is discussed. Also included in this paper is an in depth description of the Ferrographic oil analysis techniques and the various applications of the techniques to the study of engine wear. A comparison of the commonly used wear measurement methods, Ferrography, spectroscopy and the radioactive tracer methods, and their abilities to measure wear is also discussed. A direct injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used in the testing and data are presented indicating the abilities of the Ferrographic oil analysis techniques to detect changes in wear rates. The effects of operating time on engine oil and the effects of the variation of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear is presented.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection, Control, Software Integration, and Evaluation on a V6 Spark-Ignition Engine under Steady-State Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1358
The ability to operate a spark-ignition (SI) engine near the knock limit provides a net reduction of engine fuel consumption. This work presents a real-time knock control system based on stochastic knock detection (SKD) algorithm. The real-time stochastic knock control (SKC) system is developed in MATLAB Simulink, and the SKC software is integrated with the production engine control strategy through ATI's No-Hooks. The SKC system collects the stochastic knock information and estimates the knock level based on the distribution of knock intensities fitting to a log-normal (LN) distribution. A desired knock level reference table is created under various engine speeds and loads, which allows the SKC to adapt to changing engine operating conditions. In SKC system, knock factor (KF) is an indicator of the knock intensity level. The KF is estimated by a weighted discrete FIR filter in real-time.
Technical Paper

Spatial Non-Uniformities in Diesel Particulate Trap Regeneration

2001-03-05
2001-01-0908
Diesel particulate trap regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of phenomena at several scales. A hierarchy of models for the relevant physicochemical processes at the different scales of the problem (porous wall, filter channel, entire trap) is employed to obtain a rigorous description of the process in a multidimensional context. The final model structure is validated against experiments, resulting in a powerful tool for the computer-aided study of the regeneration behavior. In the present work we employ this tool to address the effect of various spatial non-uniformities on the regeneration characteristics of diesel particulate traps. Non-uniformities may include radial variations of flow, temperature and particulate concentration at the filter inlet, as well as variations of particulate loading. In addition, we study the influence of the distribution of catalytic activity along the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Relating Integral Length Scale to Turbulent Time Scale and Comparing k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulence Models in Diesel Combustion Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1117
A modified version of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time combustion model and the Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model have been implemented in the flow solver Star-CD. Combustion simulations of three DI diesel engines, utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model and a modified version of the RNG k-ε turbulence model, have been performed and evaluated with respect to combustion performance and emissions. Adjustments of the turbulent characteristic combustion time coefficient, which were necessary to match the experimental cylinder peak pressures of the different engines, have been justified in terms of non-equilibrium turbulence considerations. The results confirm the existence of a correlation between the integral length scale and the turbulent time scale. This correlation can be used to predict the combustion time scale in different engines.
Technical Paper

Predictive Control of a Power-Split HEV with Fuel Consumption and SOC Estimation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1161
This paper studies model predictive control algorithm for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management to improve HEV fuel economy. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC), a predictive control method, is applied to improve the fuel economy of power-split HEV. A dedicated model predictive control method is developed to predict vehicle speed, battery state of charge (SOC), and engine fuel consumption. The power output from the engine, motor, and the mechanical brake will be adjusted to match driver's power request at the end of the prediction window while minimizing fuel consumption. The controller model is built on Matlab® MPC toolbox® and the simulations are based on MY04 Prius vehicle model using Autonomie®, a powertrain and fuel economy analysis software, developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The study compares the performance of MPC and conventional rule-base control methods.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Control Strategies During Transient Processes Combining 1-D and 3-D Approaches

2010-04-12
2010-01-0783
One-dimensional simulation methods for unsteady (transient) engine operations have been developed and published in previous studies. These 1-D methods utilize heat release and emissions results obtained from 3-D CFD simulations which are stored in a data library. The goal of this study is to improve the 1-D methodology by optimizing the control strategies. Also, additional independent parameters are introduced to extend the 3-D data library, while, as in the previous studies, the number of interpolation points for each parameter remains small. The data points for the 3-D simulations are selected in the vicinity of the expected trajectories obtained from the independent parameter changes, as predicted by the transient 1-D simulations. By this approach, the number of time-consuming 3-D simulations is limited to a reasonable amount.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Autoignition of Gasoline-Ethanol/Air Mixtures under Different Conditions of Pressure, Temperature, Dilution, and Equivalence Ratio.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0341
A numerical simulation of autoignition of gasoline-ethanol/air mixtures has been performed using the closed homogeneous reactor model in CHEMKIN® to compute the dependence of autoignition time with ethanol concentration, pressure, temperature, dilution, and equivalence ratio. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model with 142 species and 672 reactions for a gasoline surrogate fuel with ethanol has been used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consisted of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol volume fraction is varied between 0 to 85%, initial pressure is varied between 20 to 60 bar, initial temperature is varied between 800 to 1200K, and the dilution is varied between 0 to 32% at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The ignition time is taken to be the point where the rate of change of temperature with respect to time is the largest (temperature inflection point criteria).
Technical Paper

Innovative Exergy-Based Combustion Phasing Control of IC Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0815
Exergy or availability is the potential of a system to do work. In this paper, an innovative exergy-based control approach is presented for Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). An exergy model is developed for a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The exergy model is based on quantification of the Second Law of Thermodynamic (SLT) and irreversibilities which are not identified in commonly used First Law of Thermodynamics (FLT) analysis. An experimental data set for 175 different ICE operating conditions is used to construct the SLT efficiency maps. Depending on the application, two different SLT efficiency maps are generated including the applications in which work is the desired output, and the applications where Combined Power and Exhaust Exergy (CPEX) is the desired output. The sources of irreversibility and exergy loss are identified for a single cylinder Ricardo HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0909
Wall-flow Diesel particulate filters operating at low filtration velocities usually exhibit a linear dependence between the filter pressure drop and the flow rate, conveniently described by a generalized Darcy's law. It is advantageous to minimize filter pressure drop by sizing filters to operate within this linear range. However in practice, since there often exist serious constraints on the available vehicle underfloor space, a vehicle manufacturer is forced to choose an “undersized” filter resulting in high filtration velocities through the filter walls. Since secondary inertial contributions to the pressure drop become significant, Darcy's law can no longer accurately describe the filter pressure drop. In this paper, a systematic investigation of these secondary inertial flow effects is presented.
Technical Paper

High Performance Auto Parts Could be Produced Using CastCon Manufacturing Process

1997-02-24
970429
High performance auto parts such as aluminum composite cladding aluminum brake and Ti/Ti3/Al joined exhaust valve with localized Ti+TiC composite coating could be produced using a new manufacturing method - the CastCon process. The aluminum composite cladding aluminum brake consists of an aluminum alloy body with a cladding of SiC and graphite particulate filled aluminum composite on the friction surface of a brake disk or a drum. This structure can ensure an over-all light weight and integral strength and ductility. The SiC particulate in the cladding composite increases abrasion resistance and the graphite particulate provides required lubrication. The cladding can be as thick as desired. There is a flexibility in the manufacturing process for selecting SiC and graphite loading volumes as well as particulate size and shape. This allows the part to be engineered to achieve maximum performance.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Optimal Strategies for Vehicle Supported Military Microgrids

2016-04-05
2016-01-0312
Vehicles with power exporting capability are microgrids since they possess electrical power generation, onboard loads, energy storage, and the ability to interconnect. The unique load and silent watch requirements of some military vehicles make them particularly well-suited to augment stationary power grids to increase power resiliency and capability. Connecting multiple vehicles in a peer-to-peer arrangement or to a stationary grid requires scalable power management strategies to accommodate the possibly large numbers of assets. This paper describes a military ground vehicle power management scheme for vehicle-to-grid applications. The particular focus is overall fuel consumption reduction of the mixed asset inventory of military vehicles with diesel generators typically used in small unit outposts.
X