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Technical Paper

Two-Input Two-Output Control of Blended Fuel HCCI Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1663
Precise cycle-to-cycle control of combustion is the major challenge to reduce fuel consumption in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, while maintaining low emission levels. This paper outlines a framework for simultaneous control of HCCI combustion phasing and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) on a cycle-to-cycle basis. A dynamic control model is extended to predict behavior of HCCI engine by capturing main physical processes through an HCCI engine cycle. Performance of the model is validated by comparison with the experimental data from a single cylinder Ricardo engine. For 60 different steady state and transient HCCI conditions, the model predicts the combustion phasing and IMEP with average errors less than 1.4 CAD and 0.2 bar respectively. A two-input two-output controller is designed to control combustion phasing and IMEP by adjusting fuel equivalence ratio and blending ratio of two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs).
Technical Paper

The Study of the Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Engine Wear in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analytical Ferrography

1986-03-01
860378
A study was undertaken to investigate the affect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation in a heavy duty diesel engine using a newly developed methodology that uses analytical ferrography in conjunction with short term tests. Laboratory engine testing was carried out on a Cummins NTC-300 Big Cam II diesel engine at rated speed (1800 RPM) and 75% rated load with EGR rates of 0, 5, and 15% using a SAE 15W40 CD/SF/EO-K oil. Dynamometer engine testing involved collecting oil samples from the engine sump at specified time intervals through each engine test. These oil samples were analyzed using a number of different oil analysis techniques that provide information on the metal wear debris and also on the lubricating oil properties. The results from these oil analysis techniques are the basis of determining the effect of EGR on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation, rather than an actual engine tear down between engine tests.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Spark-Ignited Stratified-Charge Two Stroke Engine Operating on a Kerosine Based Aviation Fuel

1997-09-08
972737
This study examines the feasibility of broadening the fuel capabilities of a direct-injected two-stroke engine with stratified combustion. A three cylinder, direct-injected two-stroke engine was modified to operate on JP-5, a kerosene-based jet fuel that is heavier, more viscous, and less volatile than gasoline. Demonstration of engine operation with such a fuel after appropriate design modifications would significantly enhance the utilization of this engine in a variety of applications. Results have indicated that the performance characteristics of this engine with jet fuel are similar to that of gasoline with respect to torque and power output at low speeds and loads, but the engine's performance is hampered at the higher speeds and loads by the occurrence of knock.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Fuel Composition on the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1992-02-01
920854
The U.S. Bureau of Mines and Michigan Technological University are collaborating to conduct laboratory evaluations of oxidation catalytic converters (OCCs) and diesel fuels to identify combinations which minimize potentially harmful emissions. The purpose is to provide technical information concerning diesel exhaust emission control to the mining industry, regulators, and vendors of fuel and emission control devices. In this study, an Engelhard PTX 10 DVC (Ultra-10)* OCC was evaluated in the exhaust stream of an indirect injection Caterpillar 3304 PCNA mining engine using a light-duty laboratory transient cycle. This cycle was selected because it causes high emissions of particle-associated organics. Results are also reported for two different fuels with similar sulfur contents (0.03-0.04 wt pct) and a cetane number of 53, but different aromatic contents (11 vs. 20 wt pct).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygenated Biofuel on Intake Oxygen Concentration, EGR, and Performance of a 1.9L Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0868
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been employed in a diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions by diluting the fresh air charge with gases composed of primarily N2, CO2, H2O, and O2 from the engines exhaust stream. The addition of EGR reduces the production of NOx by lowering the peak cylinder gas temperature and reducing the concentration of O2 molecules, both of which contribute to the NOx formation mechanism. The amount of EGR has been typically controlled using an open loop control strategy where the flow of EGR was calibrated to the engine speed and load and controlled by the combination of an EGR valve and the ratio of the boost and exhaust back pressures. When oxygenated biofuels with lower specific energy are used, the engine control unit (ECU) will demand a higher fuel rate to maintain power output, which can alter the volumetric flow rate of EGR. In addition, oxygenated biofuels affect the oxygen concentration in the intake manifold gas stream.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Truck Dieselization on Fuel Usage

1981-02-01
810022
The effect of truck dieselization for three levels of diesel penetration into each of the eight classes of trucks is modeled. Diesel and total truck sales, population, mileage and yearly fuel usage data are aggregated by four truck classes representing light, medium, light-heavy and heavy-heavy classes. Four fuel economy scenario's for different technological improvements were studied. Improvement of fuel economy for light and heavy-heavy duty vehicle classes provides significant total fuel savings. Truck dieselization of light and light-heavy duty vehicle classes provides the largest improvement of fuel usage due to the fact that they have large numbers of vehicles and presently have few diesels. Total car and truck fuel usage in the 1980's shows roughly a constant demand with cars decreasing due to improved new fleet fuel economy and trucks increasing due to a larger population with better fuel economy due to dieselization and improved technology.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of Ferrography to the Study of Diesel Engine Wear

1978-02-01
780181
This paper covers the development of Ferrographic oil analysis techniques for the study of diesel engine wear. A brief overview of the various wear analysis techniques now commonly used in laboratory and field engine wear studies is discussed. Also included in this paper is an in depth description of the Ferrographic oil analysis techniques and the various applications of the techniques to the study of engine wear. A comparison of the commonly used wear measurement methods, Ferrography, spectroscopy and the radioactive tracer methods, and their abilities to measure wear is also discussed. A direct injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used in the testing and data are presented indicating the abilities of the Ferrographic oil analysis techniques to detect changes in wear rates. The effects of operating time on engine oil and the effects of the variation of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear is presented.
Technical Paper

The Characterization of the Hydrocarbon and Sulfate Fractions of Diesel Particulate Matter

1978-02-01
780111
One of the more objectionable aspects of the use of diesel engines has been the emission of particulate matter. A literature review of combustion flames, theoretical calculations and dilution tunnel experiments have been performed to elucidate the chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of diesel particulate matter. A comparative dilution tunnel study of diluted and undiluted total particulate data provided evidence supporting calculations that indicate hydro-carbon condensation should occur in the tunnel at low exhaust temperatures. The sample collection system for the measurement of total particulate matter and soluble sulfate in particulate matter on the EPA 13 mode cycle is presented. A method to correct for hydrocarbon interferences in the EPA barium chloranilate method for the determination of sulfate in particulate matter is discussed.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection, Control, Software Integration, and Evaluation on a V6 Spark-Ignition Engine under Steady-State Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1358
The ability to operate a spark-ignition (SI) engine near the knock limit provides a net reduction of engine fuel consumption. This work presents a real-time knock control system based on stochastic knock detection (SKD) algorithm. The real-time stochastic knock control (SKC) system is developed in MATLAB Simulink, and the SKC software is integrated with the production engine control strategy through ATI's No-Hooks. The SKC system collects the stochastic knock information and estimates the knock level based on the distribution of knock intensities fitting to a log-normal (LN) distribution. A desired knock level reference table is created under various engine speeds and loads, which allows the SKC to adapt to changing engine operating conditions. In SKC system, knock factor (KF) is an indicator of the knock intensity level. The KF is estimated by a weighted discrete FIR filter in real-time.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection Model for Spark Ignited Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1421
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
Technical Paper

Recovery of Waste Polystyrene Generated by Lost Foam Technology in the Automotive Industry

2001-03-05
2001-01-0345
In the automotive industry, lost foam casting is a relatively new technology, which is gaining popularity among manufacturers. Lost foam casting is a process in which an expanded polystyrene pattern is formed into the shape of the part to be cast. More complex parts are fabricated by simply gluing several simple patterns together. The pattern is then coated with a refractory material consisting of a mineral mixture and binders. Finally, hot metal is poured into the pattern, evaporating the expanded polystyrene and taking shape of the coating shell. However, the automotive industry has observed that a significant number of these fabricated, coated patterns are damaged, or do not meet specifications prior to casting. These are not reusable and inevitably are landfilled. It is the goal of this project to develop a simple, reliable, and inexpensive technology to recover expanded polystyrene from the glue and coating constituents.
Technical Paper

Predictive Control of a Power-Split HEV with Fuel Consumption and SOC Estimation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1161
This paper studies model predictive control algorithm for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management to improve HEV fuel economy. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC), a predictive control method, is applied to improve the fuel economy of power-split HEV. A dedicated model predictive control method is developed to predict vehicle speed, battery state of charge (SOC), and engine fuel consumption. The power output from the engine, motor, and the mechanical brake will be adjusted to match driver's power request at the end of the prediction window while minimizing fuel consumption. The controller model is built on Matlab® MPC toolbox® and the simulations are based on MY04 Prius vehicle model using Autonomie®, a powertrain and fuel economy analysis software, developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The study compares the performance of MPC and conventional rule-base control methods.
Technical Paper

Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

2014-10-13
2014-01-2694
Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Control Strategies During Transient Processes Combining 1-D and 3-D Approaches

2010-04-12
2010-01-0783
One-dimensional simulation methods for unsteady (transient) engine operations have been developed and published in previous studies. These 1-D methods utilize heat release and emissions results obtained from 3-D CFD simulations which are stored in a data library. The goal of this study is to improve the 1-D methodology by optimizing the control strategies. Also, additional independent parameters are introduced to extend the 3-D data library, while, as in the previous studies, the number of interpolation points for each parameter remains small. The data points for the 3-D simulations are selected in the vicinity of the expected trajectories obtained from the independent parameter changes, as predicted by the transient 1-D simulations. By this approach, the number of time-consuming 3-D simulations is limited to a reasonable amount.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Autoignition of Gasoline-Ethanol/Air Mixtures under Different Conditions of Pressure, Temperature, Dilution, and Equivalence Ratio.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0341
A numerical simulation of autoignition of gasoline-ethanol/air mixtures has been performed using the closed homogeneous reactor model in CHEMKIN® to compute the dependence of autoignition time with ethanol concentration, pressure, temperature, dilution, and equivalence ratio. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model with 142 species and 672 reactions for a gasoline surrogate fuel with ethanol has been used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consisted of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol volume fraction is varied between 0 to 85%, initial pressure is varied between 20 to 60 bar, initial temperature is varied between 800 to 1200K, and the dilution is varied between 0 to 32% at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The ignition time is taken to be the point where the rate of change of temperature with respect to time is the largest (temperature inflection point criteria).
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Laminar Flame Speed of Gasoline - Ethanol/Air Mixtures with Varying Pressure, Temperature and Dilution

2010-04-12
2010-01-0620
A numerical analysis was performed to study the variation of the laminar burning speed of gasoline-ethanol blend, pressure, temperature and dilution using the one-dimensional premixed flame code CHEMKIN™. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for a gasoline surrogate fuel was used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consist of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol mole fraction was varied from 0 to 85 percent, initial pressure from 4 to 8 bar, initial temperature from 300 to 600K, and the EGR dilution from 0 to 32% to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The laminar flame speed is found to increase with ethanol concentration and temperature but decrease with pressure and dilution.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Lithium-Ion Battery Management System and Regeneration Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0939
Battery management system (BMS) plays a key role in the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). It measures the state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH) of the battery, protects the battery package and extends cells' life cycles. For HEV applications, lithium-ion battery is usually selected as electric power source due to its high specific energy, high energy density, and long life cycle. However, the non-linear characteristic of a Li-ion battery, complicated electro-chemical model, and environmental factors, raises the difficulties in the real-time estimation of the SOC for a Li-ion battery. To address this challenge, a BMS for HEVs is modeled with MATLAB/Simulink. In addition, a regenerative braking control strategy is proposed to determine the magnitude of the regenerative torque based on the battery SOC.
Technical Paper

Impact of Blending Gasoline with Isobutanol Compared to Ethanol on Efficiency, Performance and Emissions of a Recreational Marine 4-Stroke Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1230
This study evaluates iso-butanol as a pathway to introduce higher levels of alternative fuels for recreational marine engine applications compared to ethanol. Butanol, a 4-carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to gasoline than ethanol. Isobutanol at 16 vol% blend level in gasoline (iB16) exhibits energy content as well as oxygen content identical to E10. Tests with these two blends, as well as indolene as a reference fuel, were conducted on a Mercury 90 HP, 4-stroke outboard engine featuring computer controlled sequential multi-port Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI). The test matrix included full load curves as well as the 5-mode steady-state marine engine test cycle. Analysis of the full load tests suggests that equal full load performance is achieved across the engine speed band regardless of fuel at a 15-20°C increase in exhaust gas temperatures for the alcohol blends compared to indolene.
Technical Paper

High Performance Auto Parts Could be Produced Using CastCon Manufacturing Process

1997-02-24
970429
High performance auto parts such as aluminum composite cladding aluminum brake and Ti/Ti3/Al joined exhaust valve with localized Ti+TiC composite coating could be produced using a new manufacturing method - the CastCon process. The aluminum composite cladding aluminum brake consists of an aluminum alloy body with a cladding of SiC and graphite particulate filled aluminum composite on the friction surface of a brake disk or a drum. This structure can ensure an over-all light weight and integral strength and ductility. The SiC particulate in the cladding composite increases abrasion resistance and the graphite particulate provides required lubrication. The cladding can be as thick as desired. There is a flexibility in the manufacturing process for selecting SiC and graphite loading volumes as well as particulate size and shape. This allows the part to be engineered to achieve maximum performance.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Optimal Strategies for Vehicle Supported Military Microgrids

2016-04-05
2016-01-0312
Vehicles with power exporting capability are microgrids since they possess electrical power generation, onboard loads, energy storage, and the ability to interconnect. The unique load and silent watch requirements of some military vehicles make them particularly well-suited to augment stationary power grids to increase power resiliency and capability. Connecting multiple vehicles in a peer-to-peer arrangement or to a stationary grid requires scalable power management strategies to accommodate the possibly large numbers of assets. This paper describes a military ground vehicle power management scheme for vehicle-to-grid applications. The particular focus is overall fuel consumption reduction of the mixed asset inventory of military vehicles with diesel generators typically used in small unit outposts.
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