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Technical Paper

Ventilation Characteristics of Modeled Compact Car Part 3 Airflow Velocity Distribution with Foot Mode

Following the previous reports, ventilation characteristics in automobile was investigated by using a half-scale car model which was created by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (JSAE). In the present study, the ventilation mode of the cabin was foot mode which was the ventilation method for using in winter season. Supplied air was blown from the supply openings under the dashboard to the rear of the model via the driver's foot region in this mode. The experiment was performed in order to obtain accurate data about the airflow properties equipped with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Our experimental data is to be shared as a standard model to assess the environment within automobiles. The data is also for use in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) benchmark tests in the development of automobile air conditioning, which enables high accuracy prediction of the interior environment of automobiles.
Technical Paper

Variable Swirl Inlet System and Its Effect on Diesel Performance and Emissions

A variable swirl inlet system with swirl control subport was developed with consideration of how to control the angular momentum of inlet flow into the cylinder. The effects of swirl on direct injection diesel engine performance and emissions are investigated with this variable swirl system. Basically, lower swirl level reduces the amount of initial stage burning, which is related to NOx emission, maximum cylinder pressure and rate of cylinder pressure rise, over the entire range of engine speed and load. As a result, in high speed range or partial load range, low swirl level simultaneously gives better BSFC and lower NOx level. An intercooled turbocharged engine with this variable swirl inlet system gave higher low-speed torque, higher brake horse power and better cold startability by selection of optimum swirl level for each engine condition.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Torque Converter-Its Effect on Acceleration Performance of Auto-Trans. Equipped Vehicles

In previous studies(1)(2), the acceleration performance of vehicles equipped with torque converter has been analysed with the assumption that the converter characteristic was under continued steady-state. However, in case of sharp acceleration of the fluid flow in the converter from inactive flow condition, which would occur at wide-open throttle starting, it is not possible to accurately analyse the vehicle performance at immediately after starting if the converter characteristic is assumed to remain under steady-state condition. In this paper, the transient phenomenon in the converter is verified by applying the theory of angular momentum and the concept of energy balance through the converter elements providing with a dynamic-model for the driveline. The present study has clarified the effect of the transient converter characteristic, at sharp starting, on the acceleration performance.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Refrigeration Cycle Performance with Front End Air Flow CFD Analysis of an Automotive Air Conditioner

The purpose of this paper is to present a prediction method for the refrigerator performance of an automotive air conditioner (A/C). In order to predict the refrigerator performance in arbitrary situations, we consider the thermal equilibrium of the refrigeration cycle through A/C components, as the compressor, the evaporator and the condenser. These components are affected by the thermal property of the refrigerant. Influences of circumstantial flow and temperature field in the engine compartment also are reflected upon, because the cooling performance of the condenser is sensitive to that. In this paper, we try to derive algebraic models for the major components with regard to the thermal equilibrium in the refrigeration cycle. Furthermore, we use a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis (CFD) for the prediction of cooling airflow temperature in the engine compartment, which is another essential factor in determining the state of the refrigeration cycle.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Tire Deformation on Ride Comfort of a Truck

When truck tires have a deformation such as radial runout, flat spot, and abnormal wear as a result of panic braking, they affect vehicle vibration in the form of displacement input whose spectrum involves higher order terms of tire revolution. While a truck has vibration modes of frame bending as well as pitching and unsprung-mass viberation in the input frequency range, the tire displacement input induces vehicle vibration as a combination of these modes. Results of calculations and experiments of a 4x2 medium-duty truck are analyzed and an example of means for improving ride comfort is described in this paper.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of a Small Specialty Car

Aerodynamic drag reduction is one of the most important aspects of enhancing overall vehicle performance. Many car manufacturers have been working to establish drag reduction techniques. This paper describes the development process of a new small speciality car which achieved coefficient of drag(CD) of 0.25. A description of the test facilities and the systems used for developing the aerodynamic aspect of the car are also introduced briefly.
Technical Paper

The 1.5-Liter Vertical Vortex Engine

A stratified-charge lean-burn engine is newly developed for the purpose of energy saving and carbon dioxide reduction to minimize the global warming. The engine, named MVV(Mitsubishi Vertical Vortex)engine, is based on the unique vertical vortex technology which realizes stable combustion even with lean mixture without any additional device. And it also has another feature of “all range air-to-fuel ratio feedback control system” utilizing linear air-to-fuel ratio sensor. This paper describes various technologies developed in this engine.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1994 USA Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Recent global environmental problems which have come to light must be solved for ensuring the survival of the human race. And it is of the utmost importance that we give to our descendants a world full of nature and beauty. In the past years Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has long been positive in research and the development activities so as to satisfy the demands for low emission and good fuel economy vehicles. (1) As one example of our research efforts, the technology that will meet the US '94 HDDE exhaust emission regulations, which is one of the most stringent regulations in the world, is described in this paper. The exhaust emissions were reduced by improvement of combustion, using the pre-stroke control type fuel injection pump and optimizing the combustion chamber shape. Efforts were also made to improve the oil consumption, in order to reduce PM (Particulate Matter) emission.
Technical Paper

Technology for Meeting the 1991 U.S.A. Exhaust Emission Regulations on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Protection of the Earth's environment by means of energy saving and cleaning up of air pollution on a global scale is one of the most important subjects in the world today. Because of this, the requirements for better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines have been getting stronger, and, in particular, simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) without degrading fuel economy has become a major subject. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MM) has been selling diesel-powered heavy-duty trucks in the U.S. market since 1985 and has agressively carried out development work for meeting the 1991 model year exhaust emission standards.
Technical Paper

Technology for Low Emission, Combustion Noise and Fuel Consumption on Diesel Engine

In order to reduce exhaust emission and combustion noise and to improve fuel consumption, the effects of the combustion system parameters of a diesel engine, such as injection pressure, injection nozzle hole diameter, swirl ratio, and EGR rate on exhaust emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption are investigated and described in detail by analyzing rate of heat release, needle valve lift and injection pressure. Based on these results, reduction of exhaust emission and combustion noise and improvement of fuel consumption are described in the latter part of this paper. These results are shown as follows. The smaller nozzle hole diameter is effective for reducing smoke and PM, and by optimizing the injection timing and swirl ratio, NOx can also be reduced. In addition to the above, by applying EGR and higher injection pressure it is possible to improve the fuel consumption with the remaining low NOx and PM.
Technical Paper

Suppression of Mud Adhesion to the Rear Surface of a Van-Type Truck

Mud adhesion to the rear surfaces of trucks, vans and buses causes troublesome results such as aesthetic degradation, hindered rear view and laborious washing. To raise the product value of trucks and buses, it is important to develop effective measures for suppressing such mud adhesion. In this research the authors first clarified the mechanism of mud adhesion through flow visualization tests. Then, wind tunnel tests were performed to predict the effects of various countermeasures, and prospective ones were put under actual driving tests to verify their effects. The following measures were found effective in suppressing mud adhesion. (1) Aerodynamic improvement by attaching corner vanes to the upper and side edges of the rear surface. (2) Blocking road splash with a slanted plate under the truck and close to the base.
Technical Paper

Study on Practicality of Electric Vehicle “i-MiEV” under Severe Weather

Mitsubishi Motors Corporation succeeded in mass production of the electric vehicle “i-MiEV” which features leading-edge technologies epitomized by lithium-ion battery. The EV was released into the Japanese market in July 2009 and the European market in January 2011. In order to be used all over the world, the EV has to be practical and durable even under severe weather of extremely cold or extremely hot regions. In this paper we report some results of the tests conducted under extremely cold weather as well as extremely hot weather. From the test results the validity of the vehicle control system and the practicality of the EV are verified.
Technical Paper

Structural Joint Stiffness of Automotive Body

An analysis of the static behavior of T-shaped joint is presented. Advanced testings by laser holography and infrared ray stress wave analyzers verified the surface deformation and the stress concentration of joint area, which are very important factors of thin-walled joint stiffness. The definition of structural joint stiffness is attempted, and the relationship between structural joint stiffness and sizes(dimension) of the constructing members is obtained in case of a thin-walled T-shaped member with rectangular cross section. The parametric study to accomplish weight reduction, while maintaining the necessary structural joint stiffness, is described in case of Rocker to Center pillar. The numerical analysis of body structure considering the structural joint stiffness shows better accuracy as compared with the analysis with the joint assumed rigid.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Evaluation of Passenger Vehicle Interior Noise

Objective measures to evaluate sound quality are important for proper sound design and noise improvement. In this paper, the objective measures of interior noise of passenger vehicle, which is operated at constant engine revolution speed, are discussed. Subjective evaluation test of the interior noise was done using the semantic differential method. By applying factor analysts to the subjective evaluation scores, three important factors of the sound quality were extracted, i.e. comfortable, powerful and booming factors. Each factor was correlated with various physical values, for example octave band levels. Furthermore, the data is analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis with stepwise variable selection, of the each factor scores against the various physical values. Finally, an objective measure to evaluate each of these factors was conducted using the combination of simple physical values. Each of these measures was good correlation with each of the subjective evaluations.
Technical Paper

Soot and Valve Train Wear in Passenger Car Diesel Engines

The effect of the use of the EGR system on the lubrication of a passenger car diesel engine was investigated. The higher the EGR rate, the more soot in the oil. And the most detrimental effect was found in valve train wear. Some engine tests, including motoring tests, were carried out to investigate the contribution of soot to valve train wear. The mechanism of cam and rocker arm wear in used oils was studied by analyzing for elements on the lubricated metal surface and subsequently the mechanism was more thoroughly studied using the four-ball test. Soot seems to act as an abrasive on the anti-wear solid film formed by the oil on the metal surface and this film contains Ca, O, P and S. Some hardware modifications and oil formulations to reduce valve train wear are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Small Engine - Concept Emission Vehicles

Three Japanese automobile manufacturers-Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., and Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.-have been making efforts over the past three years to design and develop effective thermal reactor-exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter systems suitable for small engines. The work is being done by members participating in the IIEC (Inter-Industry Emission Control) Program, and the exhaust emission levels of the concept vehicles developed by these companies have met the goal established by the IIEC Program at low mileage. Each system, however, has a characteristic relationship between exhaust emission level and loss of fuel economy. Much investigation is required, particularly with respect to durability, before any system that will fully satisfy all service requirements can be completed. This paper reports the progress of research and development of the individual concept vehicles.
Technical Paper

Shape Study for a Low-Air Resistance Air Deflector - The Second Report

We reported, in our first report1), the study of shapes of air deflectors that have strong yawing angle characteristics for the air resistance encountered when vehicles are running at high speed, taking into account the ambient wind. However, it is rarely the case that the optimum shape of air deflector, which was obtained and reported in our first report, is directly adopted for practical use. This paper reports the results of measurement tests on how the air resistance increases (worsens) when an air deflector is mounted on the cab of a vehicle: in the case when the air deflector was slightly changed on the same vehicle; or when the parameters of the vehicle (the height of the rear body) were changed for the same air deflector. We obtained the following results: Considerations and adjustments are required not to allow flows passing over upper and side surfaces of the air deflector to hit the front surface of the rear body.
Technical Paper

Shape Optimization of Solid Structures Using the Growth-Strain Method (Application to Chassis Components)

This paper describes the shape optimization analysis of solid structures such as chassis components of a car, where the shape optimization problems of linearly elastic structures are treated to improve strength or to reduce weight of solid structures. The optimization method used here is the growth-strain method, and the shape optimization system is developed based on this method. The growth-strain method, which modifies a shape by generating bulk strain, was previously proposed for analysis of the uniform-strength shape. The generation law of the bulk strain is given as a function of a distributed parameter to be uniformed, such as von Mises stress. Two improved generation laws are presented. The first law makes the distributed parameter uniform while controlling the structural volume to a target value. The second law makes the distributed parameter uniform while controlling the maximum value of the distributed parameter to a target value.
Technical Paper

Selective Heat Insulation of Combustion Chamber Walls for a DI Diesel Engine with Monolithic Ceramics

The engine performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder DI diesel engine were experimentally investigated. The combustion chamber walls of the engine were thermally insulated with ceramic materials of SSN (Sintered Silicon Nitride) and PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia). Fuel economy and emissions characteristics were improved by insulating selected locations of the combustion chamber walls. The selective insulation helped to create activated diffusion combustion and resulted in more efficient use of the intake air.
Technical Paper

Relationship Between MTBE-Blended Gasoline Properties and Warm-Up Driveability

The relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100°C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio (λ) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated.