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Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Safety-What We Know

1985-01-01
856106
The overall highway fatality rate has dropped almost continuously since 1925, from 20 to 2.5 per 100 million miles of travel in 1984. Still, the almost 44,000 fatalities in 1984 can and will be decreased. In 1983, 5,475 of the 42,584 highway fatalities were in accidents involving medium or heavy trucks. Only 18 percent of these were occupants of the trucks themselves; 82 percent were pedestrians or occupants of the other vehicle. The greatest number of combination truck accidents takes place on two-lane rural roads. Single-vehicle accidents are responsible for 70 percent of heavy truck occupant fatalities. Doubles and heavier trucks appear to be as safe as other heavy trucks. Rollover and ejection are responsible for the greatest number of truck occupant fatalities. When asked about her top priority as the new Secretary of Transportation, Mrs. Dole replied, “There's no higher mandate for the Department than to promote safety….”
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Safety-What We Know

1985-04-01
851191
The overall highway fatality rate has dropped almost contintinously since 1925, from 20 to 2.5 per hundred million miles of travel in 1984. Still, the almost 44, 000 fatalities in 1984 can, and will, be decreased. In 1983, 5, 475 of the 42, 584 highway fatalities were in accidents involving medium or heavy trucks. Only 18% of these were occupants of the trucks themselves. 82% were pedestrians or occupants of the “other vehicle.” The greatest number of combination truck accidents take place on two-lane rural roads. Single-vehicle accidents are responsible for 70% of heavy truck occupant fatalities. Doubles and heavier trucks appear to be as safe as other heavy trucks. Rollover and ejection are responsible for the greatest number of truck occupant fatalities.
Technical Paper

Development of an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Reinflation Study for Accelerated Laboratory Aging

2008-04-14
2008-01-1491
In the work leading to the TREAD Act, some members of Congress expressed the need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice existed, the ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability task group was established in 2002 to develop a test standard. During the first phase of development, it was found that the process of oxidative aging depleted the level of oxygen in some tires below the point at which aging could effectively continue. Therefore, in the second phase, a research module was formulated to determine the most appropriate method by which to maintain the oxygen concentration in the tire at a sufficiently high level. The research encompassed the evaluation of test data from laboratory aged tires whose oxygen concentration was kept elevated either through a top-off method or a vent/reinflate method. This presentation focuses on the analyses conducted to determine the appropriate method by which to maintain oxygen concentration in the tire.
Technical Paper

Development of an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Determination of Time and Temperature Parameters for Accelerated Laboratory Static Aging

2008-04-14
2008-01-1492
During the first phase (Phase 1) of aged durability test development, static oven aging of tires was selected as the preferred method of accelerated laboratory aging. representative material property changes and warranted further study. The objective of this follow-up Phase 2 oven aging study was to identify preferred temperatures and times (or ranges) for the accelerated oven aging of tires, which could yield material property changes similar to those observed for in-service tires. These studies were conducted on three tire models. Conclusions and recommendations for subsequent validation across a broad spectrum of consumer tire types were reached.
Technical Paper

Development of Aged Tire Durability Standard - Accelerated Laboratory Static Aging

2008-04-14
2008-01-1490
In the work leading to the TREAD Act, some members of Congress expressed the need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice existed, the ASTM F9.30 Aged Tire Durability task group was established in 2002 to develop a test standard. After several years of phase 1 research, the task group identified key learning about both static and dynamic laboratory aging. Accelerated aging conditions for both approaches were examined by statistically and empirically analyzing property changes of both field and laboratory aged tires relative to the corresponding properties of a new tire. The research encompassed the evaluation of test data from field tires that were directly compared and analyzed against the data generated from tires that were laboratory aged on an accelerated basis. This presentation focuses on the effects of static aging in an oven using a 4 variable statistical design of experiment.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Steady State DOE Study

2008-04-14
2008-01-1493
In the work leading to the TREAD Act, some members of Congress expressed the need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice existed, the ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability task group was established in 2002 to develop a scientifically valid, short duration, laboratory aged tire durability test which correlates to in-service aging. The target end-of-test condition was belt edge separation (or related tire conditions). One strategy, driven by that objective, has been a Steady State DOE investigating aging temperature and duration, as well as, roadwheel speed, pressure and deflection. Testing was performed on three tire types, including two where relevant field aging data was publicly available from NHTSA studies. A region of interest, within the design space, was identified where target end-of-test conditions were possible and undesirable (non-target or non-representative of those seen in consumer use) were avoided.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Rationale for a Steady State DOE

2008-04-14
2008-01-1495
In response to the TREAD act of 2002, ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability Task Group was formed with the objective of developing a scientifically valid, short duration aged durability test which correlates to field behavior. The target end-of-test condition was belt edge separation (or related damage). One strategy, driven by that objective, has been a steady state design of experiment investigating aging temperature and duration as well as roadwheel speed, pressure and deflection. The rationale behind investigating a steady state test and selecting these parameters and methodology for setting their initial values is reviewed.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Comparison of Stepped-Up Load and Steady State DOE Results

2008-04-14
2008-01-1494
In response to the TREAD act of 2002, ASTM F09.30 Aged Tire Durability Task Group was formed with the objective of developing a scientifically valid, short duration, laboratory aged tire durability test which correlates to field behavior. The target end-of-test condition was belt edge separation (or related damage). Two strategies have been investigated, aged stepped-up load and steady state DOE. Results of the two strategies are compared and contrasted and a test condition from the steady state DOE has been identified as the preferred direction for further validation.
Technical Paper

Development for an Aged Tire Durability Standard - Accelerated Laboratory Dynamic Aging

2008-04-14
2008-01-0149
In the work leading to the TREAD Act, some members of Congress expressed the need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice existed, the ASTM F9.30 Aged Tire Durability task group was established in 2002 to develop a test standard. After several years of phase 1 research, the task group identified key learning about both static and dynamic laboratory aging. Accelerated aging conditions for both approaches were examined by statistically and empirically analyzing property changes of both field and laboratory aged tires relative to the corresponding properties of a new tire. The research encompassed the evaluation of test data from field tires that were directly compared and analyzed against the data generated from tires that were laboratory aged on an accelerated basis. This paper focuses on the effects of dynamic laboratory aging on a 1.7-meter roadwheel using a five variable statistical design.
Technical Paper

Advances in Indoor Tire Tread Wear Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1477
Indoor or laboratory testing of tire tread wear offers many advantages over vehicle fleet testing. Advances in test equipment capabilities and the technologies for defining and simulating meaningful tire loading histories has made indoor tread wear testing a reality. Tire loading histories are influenced by vehicle characteristics, wear course and driving style, and tire stiffnesses. Methods for independently characterizing each of these are reviewed. A simulation technique, TS-Sim, is also described that combines specific vehicle, course and tire characterizations to create a tire load history. The vehicle characterization is critical to the process since both wear rate and various forms of uneven and irregular wear are strongly dependent on vehicle suspension/steering characteristics and on dynamic load transfer behavior. The characterization process involves mapping the vehicle over a practical range of acceleration, deceleration and cornering maneuvers.
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