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Technical Paper

A Study of Abnormal Wear in Power Cylinder of Diesel Engine with EGR - Wear Mechanism of Soot Contaminated in Lubricating Oil

Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) causes the piston ring and cylinder liners of a diesel engine to suffer abnormal wear. The present study aimed at making clear the mechanism of wear which is induced by soot in the EGR gas. The piston ring has been chrome plated and the cylinder was made of boron steadite cast iron. Detailed observations of the ring sliding surfaces and that of the wear debris contained in lubricating oil were carried out. As a result, it was found that the wear of the top ring sliding surfaces identify abrasive wear without respect to the presence of EGR by steadite on the cylinder liner sliding surface. In addition, it is confirmed in a cutting test that soot mixed lubricating oil improved in performance as cutting oil. Based on these results, we proposed the hypothesis in the present study that ring wear is accelerated at EGR because abrasive wear increases due to a lot of soot mixed into lubricating oil improving the performance of lubricating oil as cutting oil.
Technical Paper

A Study of Heat Rejection and Combustion Characteristics of a Low-temperature and Pre-mixed Combustion Concept Based on Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

There have been strong demands recently for reductions in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engines from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. A great deal of research is being done on new emission control technologies using direct-injection (DI) diesel engines that provide high thermal efficiency. This work includes dramatic improvements in the combustion process. The authors have developed a new combustion concept called Modulated Kinetics (MK), which reduces smoke and NOx levels simultaneously by reconciling low-temperature combustion with pre-mixed combustion [1, 2]. At present, research is under way on the second generation of MK combustion with the aim of improving emission performance further and achieving higher thermal efficiency [3]. Reducing heat rejection in the combustion chamber is effective in improving the thermal efficiency of DI diesel engines as well as that of MK combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Backfire in External Mixture Formation Hydrogen Engines -About Backfire Occurred by Cause of the Spark Plug-

It is a well-known fact that the exhaust emission characteristics of hydrogen fueled engines are extremely good. The external mixture formation - a hydrogen fuel supply method - has the merit of practically zero NOx emission level in the lean mixture range with the excess air ratio λ set at 2.0 or greater as well as the merits of simple mechanism and easy operation. However, the practical use of such engines has been impeded partly due to the occurrence of backfire where the excess air ratio λ is 2 to 3. In order to allow the practical use of the hydrogen fueled engines with external mixture formation, it is vital to determine the causes of backfire and to establish proper countermeasures. It is found through a recent study conducted on the mechanism of backfire that the abnormal electric discharge in the intake stroke is one of the causes of backfire.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on Relationship between Lubricating Oil Consumption and Cylinder Bore Deformation in Conventional Gasoline Engine

It is well known that lubricating oil consumption (LOC) is much affected by the cylinder bore deformation occurring within internal combustion engines. There are few analytical reports, however, of this relationship within internal combustion engines in operation. This study was aimed at clarifying the relationship between cylinder bore deformation and LOC, using a conventional in-line four-cylinder gasoline engine. The rotary piston method developed by the author et al. was used to measure the cylinder bore deformation of the engine’s cylinder #3 and cylinder #4. In addition, the sulfur tracer method was applied to measure LOC of each cylinder. LOC was also measured by changing ring tension with a view to taking up for discussion how piston ring conforms to cylinder, and how such conformability affects LOC. Their measured results were such that the cylinder bore deformation was small in the low engine load area and large in the high engine load area.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Degree of Constant Volume and Cooling Loss in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine

This study analyzes the factors influencing the thermal efficiency of a homogeneous charge spark-injection (SI) engine fuelled with hydrogen, focusing on the degree of constant volume and cooling loss. The cooling loss from the burning gas to the cylinder walls is quantitatively evaluated by analyzing the cylinder pressure diagram and exhaust gas composition. The degree of constant volume burning and constant volume cooling are also obtained by fitting the Wiebe function to the rate of heat release calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. A comparison of combustion and cooling characteristics of hydrogen and methane combustion reveals that cooling loss in hydrogen combustion is higher than that of methane combustion due to the short quenching distance and rapid burning velocity during hydrogen combustion. It is also suggested that the high cooling loss observed during hydrogen combustion reduces thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion Pressure Vibration in Hydrogen Fuel Injection Hot Surface Ignition Engines

In high pressure hydrogen injection hot surface ignition engines under nearly all engine operating conditions combustion pressure vibration is generated just after ignition. As a result of many experimental investigations the true nature for the cause of this interesting phenomenon was found and are listed: (1) This phenomenon probably originates from the extremely high local rate of burning of the hydrogen-air mixture. (2) Accompaning the stronger combustion pressure vibration was an increase in engine vibration and noise with increase in NOx emission and higher piston temperature. (3) Longer ignition delay resulted in a steeper pressure-time diagram which resalted in a stronger combustion pressure vibration. (4) The phenomenon had negligible effect on engine performance. (5) The phenomenon can be prevented by premixing a ceratain quantity of hydrogen gas into the intake air stream. The result was a shortened ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Electrode Poisoning by Carbon Monoxide and/or Hydrogen Sulfide in the Anode Feed of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells as Analyzed by AC Impedance Spectroscopy

The results of this study make clear the characteristics of electrode performance deterioration in terms of cell voltage reduction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) caused by the presence of certain quantities of carbon monoxide and/or hydrogen sulfide in the anode feed. AC impedance measurements of the anode and cathode potentials revealed that both electrode potentials showed deterioration in the presence of each type of poisoning gas. This suggests that the poisoning gases permeated the electrolyte membrane and transferred to the cathode, causing performance deterioration by poisoning the catalyst. In addition, AC impedance measurements indicated that the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the anode feed increased the membrane impedance, thus implying some poisoning effect even on the electrolyte membrane.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of H2-CO-CO2 Mixture in an IC Engine

Reformed fuel from hydrocarbons or alcohol mainly consists of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The composition of the reformed fuel can be varied to some extent with a combination of a thermal decomposition reaction and a water gas shift reaction. Methanol is known to decompose at a relatively low temperature. An application of the methanol reforming system to an internal combustion engine enables an exhaust heat recovery to increase the heating value of the reformed fuel. This research analyzed characteristics of combustion, exhaust emissions and cooling loss in an internal combustion engine fueled with several composition of model gases for methanol reformed fuels which consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Experiments were made with both a bottom view type optical access single cylinder research engine and a constant volume combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of a Technique to Predict Oil Consumption with Consideration for Cylinder Deformation - Prediction of Ring Oil Film Thickness and Amount of Oil Passing Across Running Surface under Cylinder Deformation -

Although various factors affecting oil consumption of an internal combustion engine can be considered, a technique to predict the amount of oil consumed within a cylinder that passes across a running surface of a ring was developed in this study. In order to predict the effect of cylinder deformation on oil consumption, a simple and easy technique to calculate the oil film thickness in deformed cylinder was proposed. For this technique, the piston ring was assumed to be a straight beam, and the beam bends with ring tension, gas pressure, and oil film pressure. From the calculated oil film thickness, amount of oil passing across the running surface of the TOP ring and into the combustion chamber was calculated. The calculated results were then compared to the oil film thickness of the ring and oil consumption measured during engine operation, and their validity was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Simulator: Design and Application to Plasma Discharge Testing

A diesel fuel and air diffusion flame burner system has been designed for laboratory simulation of diesel exhaust gas. The system consists of mass flow controllers and a fuel pump, and employs several unique design and construction features. It produces particulate emissions with size, number distribution, and morphology similar to diesel exhaust. At the same time, it generates NOx emissions and HC similar to diesel. The system has been applied to test plasma discharges. Different design discharge devices have been tested, with results indicating the importance of testing devices with soot and moisture. Both packed bed reactor and flat plate dielectric barrier discharge systems remove some soot from the gas, but the designs tested are susceptible to soot fouling and related electrical failures. The burner is simple and stable, and is suitable for development and aging of plasma and catalysts systems in the laboratory environment.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Jet on Mixture Formation in a High-Pressure Injection Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Spark Ignition

In order to establish hydrogen engines for practical use, it is important to overcome difficulties caused by unique characteristics of hydrogen fuel. A hydrogen engine with direct injection right before top dead center(TDC) and spark ignition has advantages such as prevention of abnormal combustion and realization of high power output near the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, in comparison with an engine with external mixture. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that ignition and combustion for this type of hydrogen engines should be improved and that further studies on mixture formation of air and injected hydrogen are necessary for the improvement. For the direct injection hydrogen engine, mixture is formed both by air flow inside the combustion chamber and by injected hydrogen jet.
Technical Paper

Effects of Flame Motion and Temperature on Local Wall Heat Transfer in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine Simulating Diesel Combustion

Local heat flux from the flame to the combustion chamber wall, q̇, was measured the wall surfaces of a rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate diesel combustion. Temperature of the flame zone, T1, was calculated by a thermodynamic two-zone model using measured values of cylinder pressure and flame volume. A local heat transfer coefficient was proposed which is defined as q̇/(T1-Tw). Experiments showed that the local heat transfer coefficient depends slightly on the temperature difference, T1-Tw, but depends significantly on the velocity of the flame which contacts the wall surface.
Technical Paper

Friction and Lubrication Characteristics of Piston Pin Boss Bearings of an Automotive Engine

The aim of this research was to analyze the lubrication conditions of piston pin boss bearings used in the press-fit piston pins of automobile gasoline engines. An original pin boss friction measuring device was developed and used to successfully obtain measurements. It was revealed that the friction force peaks twice every cycle at high engine loads, and non-fluid lubrication characteristics are displayed. The friction forces for various differing piston pins and pin boss bearings were analyzed, and it was shown that reducing piston pin length or thickness to reduce piston weight, or reducing the pin boss bearing clearance to reduce noise worsen the friction characteristics and increase the possibility of abnormal bearing friction as well as seizure.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Characteristics of Hydrogen and Hydrogen-rich Natural Gas Reformate Supported by DME Supplement

Hydrogen is expected to be a clean and energy-efficient fuel for the next generation of power sources because it is CO2-free and has excellent combustion characteristics. In this study, an attempt was made to apply Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion to hydrogen with the aim of achieving low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions and high fuel economy with the assistance of the di-methyl-ether (DME) fuel supplement. As a result, HCCI combustion of hydrogen mixed with 25 vol% DME achieved approximately a 30% improvement in fuel economy compared with HCCI of pure DME and spark-ignited lean-burn combustion of pure hydrogen under almost zero NOx emissions and low hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. This is attributed to control of the combustion process to attain the optimum onset of combustion and to a reduction of cooling losses.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer into Ceramic Combustion Chamber Wall of Internal Combustion Engines

The authors developed the optimum thin film thermocouples in terms of materials, shape and dimensions to make instantaneous surface temperature and heat flux measurements of combustion chamber wall in internal combustion engines with accuracy by the computer analysis. And they succeeded to make thin film thermocouple in ceramic piston, by the application of the above technique. Then, the instantaneous surface temperature was measured to obtained the instantaneous heat flux on the ceramic plate fixed on top of the piston.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer into Ceramic Combustion Wall of Internal Combustion Engines

A thin film thermocouple with a high accuracy was developed by means of computer analysis, which allowed measurements of instantaneous temperatures and heat fluxes on combustion chamber walls. Conventional Al-alloy and ceramic plates were compared in terms of the heat loss at the upper surface of each piston during combustion, using a gasoline engine and a diesel engine in the series of experiments. It was found by the comparison that the ceramic plates subjected to higher temperatures had greater heat losses in both the gasoline and diesel engines contrary to the anticipation.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Combustion Study in Direct Infection Hot Surface Ignition Engine

The hydrogen combustion characteristics have been studied in a late-injection (near TDC) hot surface ignition engine. As a supplemental experiment, the mode of combustion was observed in a constant volume combustion chamber by the schlieren method. Consequently the combustion process, that was the flame propagation initiated by a hot surface through heterogeneous hydrogen jets, was not the same as that of a diesel engine. The experimental results in test engine showed the optimum number of injection holes and the effect of intake air swirl for better mixture formation. It was observed that the combustion was frequently accompanied by non-negligible combustion pressure vibrations at all engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Low NOx Emission Automobile Liquid Hydrogen Engine by Means of Dual Mixture Formation

According to authors' previous research, high pressure hydrogen engines with direct injection right before TDC and spark ignition obtain high performance and eliminate almost. abnormal combustion. This study has clarified the mooted points in the flame propagation to adjacent jets and the control of the optimum spark timing and large NOx emissions even in leaner than excess air ratio of λ=2. Nitric oxides (NOx) is the only the pollutant in the exhaust gases emitted by hydrogen engines. It has been found that the NOx formation largely depends on the mixture formation method. In order to operate the engine in a small amount of NOx, an experimental study was carried out to investigate the reduction of NOx and the output power by using dual mixture formation method, external mixture formation and direct injection.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Cylinder Bore Deformation During Actual Operating Engines

One of the phenomena accompanying the lightweight/compact/high power output feature of engines is the cylinder bore deformation, which may readily cause increased oil consumption, gas leakage, unusual wear, scuffing, etc.. The authors have had experiences that piston rings had generated contact failure during engine operation (1)*. Such deformation is generated as a combination of the static deformation due to head bolt tightening, crankshaft installation, etc., and the deformation by the operating factors; thermal load and combustion pressure. Countermeasure of design have been made for the former (2)*, and prediction of the deformation during actual operating have been tried using FEM analysis, etc. for the latter (3)*. Therefore, the accurate measurement result have been required strongly, for a long time. But it could not be realized in the past.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux Flowing Into Metallic and Ceramic Combustion Chamber Walls

Accurate measurements of combustion gas temperature and the coefficient of heat transfer between the gas and the combustion chamber wall of internal combustion engine in cyclic operations are difficult at present. Hence the only method available for determination of states of thermal load and heat loss to the combustion chamber wall in a cycle is to measure the instantaneous temperature on the combustion chamber wall surface accurately and precisely using proper thin-film thermocouples, then to calculate the instantanenous heat flux flowing into the wall surface by means of numerical analysis. However, it is necessary to pay adequate attention to the effects of thermophysical properties of the thermocouple materials on the measured values, since any thermocouple consists of several kinds of materials which are different from those of portions to be measured.