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Technical Paper

Variation of Piston Ring Oil Film Thickness in an Internal Combustion Engine - Comparison Between Thrust and Anti-Thrust Sides

This paper describes a measurement method using laser induced fluorescence we have developed for simple simultaneous measurements of piston ring oil film thickness at plural points for internal combustion engines. The findings obtained by the measurements of oil film thickness on both thrust and anti-thrust sides of the piston for a mono-cylinder compact diesel engine using this new measurement method are also discussed in this paper. One of main findings is that the oil film thickness of each ring on both sides differs markedly in terms of the absolute value and the stroke- to-stroke variation. It is found that this difference in oil film thickness is caused by the difference in the amount of lubricating oil supplied to the oil ring, and the effect is greater than that of engine speed or load.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on Heat Loss in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines

One of the problems in HCCI combustion is a knocking in higher load conditions. It governs the high load limit, and it is suggested that the knock increases heat loss[1], because it breaks the thermal boundary layer. But it is not clear how much knock affects on heat loss in the HCCI combustion in various conditions, such as ignition timing and load. The motivation of this study is to clarify the ratio of heat loss caused by knock in HCCI engines. The heat loss from zero-dimensional calculations with modified heat transfer coefficient, which is considering the effect of knock by adding a term of cylinder pressure rising rate dp/dt, agreed well with the results from the thermodynamic analysis in various conditions. And the results show that it is possible to avoid heat loss by knock by controlling the ignition timing at appropriate timing after T.D.C. and it will be possible to expand the load range if knock can be avoided.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Crankshaft Offset on Piston Friction Force in a Gasoline Engine

Offsetting the crankshaft axis with respect to the cylinder axis has been thought to be a method to reduce piston side force[1]. Hence the piston friction is expected to be reduced. An automotive manufacturer has already used the crankshaft offset for a production gasoline engine to improve fuel economy. The authors have conducted research into the effect of crankshaft offset on the piston friction. A single-cylinder engine was modified to have a crankshaft offset. Piston frictional force was measured in real-time by using a floating liner method. In addition, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique was employed to measure oil film thickness on the piston skirt area, and a gap sensor was used to measure piston motion. As a result, the authors concluded that the effect of crankshaft offset on piston friction could not be explained only by its effect on the piston side force. In accordance with the measurement results, crankshaft offset changed piston slap motion.
Journal Article

Summary and Progress of the Hydrogen ICE Truck Development Project

A development project for a hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) system for trucks supporting Japanese freightage has been promoted as a candidate for use in future vehicles that meet ultra-low emission and anti-global warming targets. This project aims to develop a hydrogen ICE truck that can handle the same freight as existing trucks. The core development technologies for this project are a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen ICE system and a liquid hydrogen tank system which has a liquid hydrogen pump built-in. In the first phase of the project, efforts were made to develop the DI hydrogen ICE system. Over the past three years, the following results have been obtained: A high-pressure hydrogen gas direct injector developed for this project was applied to a single-cylinder hydrogen ICE and the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) corresponding to a power output of 147 kW in a 6-cylinder hydrogen ICE was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Study on Mechanism of Backfire in Hydrogen Engines

In this study, the cause of backfire concerning an external mixture formation type hydrogen engine was clarified. It has been known that the maximum output power of the external mixture formation type hydrogen engine should be kept significantly low, because of backfire. Generally, the backfire of this type of hydrogen engine is caused by pre-ignition. In this type of hydrogen engine, pre-ignition occurred for a range of lean mixture. Under this study, therefore, the relationship between the occurrence of backfire and the temperature at the tip of the spark plug electrode, and the detection of the luminescence spectrum of the flame near the spark plug were examined and studied in relation to the spark plug ignition theory which appeared to be promising. Then the pre-ignition timing and location were studied by detecting the flame luminescence spectrum.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Cooling Loss in Hydrogen Combustion by Direct Injection Stratified Charge

Hydrogen can be readily used in spark-ignition engines as a clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a larger burning velocity and a shorter quenching distance for hydrogen as compared with hydrocarbons bring a larger cooling loss from burning gas to the combustion-chamber wall. Because of the large cooling loss, the thermal efficiency of a hydrogen-fueled engine is sometimes lower than that of a conventionally fueled engine. Therefore, the reduction of the cooling loss is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen-combustion engines. On the other hand, the direct-injection stratified charge can suppress knocking in spark-ignition engines at near stoichiometric overall mixture conditions. Because this is attributed to a leaner end gas, the stratification can lead to a lowered temperature of burning gas around the wall and a reduced cooling loss.
Technical Paper

Part 3: A Study of Friction and Lubrication Behavior for Gasoline Piston Skirt Profile Concepts

This paper deals with the friction performance results for various new concept piston skirt profiles. The program was conducted under the assumption that friction performance varies by the total amount of oil available at each crank angle in each stroke and the instantaneous distribution of the oil film over the piston skirt area. In previous papers [1,2] it was that lower friction designs would be expected to show higher skirt slap noise. This paper discusses the correlation between friction and skirt slap for each new concept profile design. Finally, this paper explains the friction reduction mechanism for the test samples for each stroke of the engine cycle by observing the skirt movement and oil lubrication pattern using a visualization engine.
Technical Paper

Part 2: The Effects of Lubricating Oil Film Thickness Distribution on Gasoline Engine Piston Friction

Due to increasing economic and environmental performance requirements of internal combustion engines, piston manufacturers now focus more on lower friction designs. One factor strongly influencing the friction behavior of pistons is the dynamic interaction between lubricating oil, cylinder bore and piston. Therefore, the dynamic effect of the oil film in the gap between the liner and piston has been studied, using a single cylinder engine equipped with a sapphire window. This single cylinder engine was also equipped with a floating liner, enabling real-time friction measurement, and directly linking the oil film behavior to friction performance of pistons.
Technical Paper

New Combustion Concept for Ultra-Clean and High-Efficiency Small DI Diesel Engines

Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions of diesel vehicles are regarded as a source of air pollution, and there is a global trend to enforce more stringent regulations on these exhaust gas constituents in the early years of the 21st century. On the other hand, the excellent thermal efficiency of diesel engines is certainly a welcome attribute from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. Recently, many research institutes around the world have been using high-efficiency direct-injection (DI) diesel engines to research emission control technologies. The authors have also been engaged in such research [1,2]. As a result of this work, we have developed a new combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK), that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously due to low-temperature and premixed combustion characteristics, respectively, without increasing fuel consumption [3,4].
Technical Paper

Low NOx Emission Automobile Liquid Hydrogen Engine by Means of Dual Mixture Formation

According to authors' previous research, high pressure hydrogen engines with direct injection right before TDC and spark ignition obtain high performance and eliminate almost. abnormal combustion. This study has clarified the mooted points in the flame propagation to adjacent jets and the control of the optimum spark timing and large NOx emissions even in leaner than excess air ratio of λ=2. Nitric oxides (NOx) is the only the pollutant in the exhaust gases emitted by hydrogen engines. It has been found that the NOx formation largely depends on the mixture formation method. In order to operate the engine in a small amount of NOx, an experimental study was carried out to investigate the reduction of NOx and the output power by using dual mixture formation method, external mixture formation and direct injection.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Piston Lubrication in a Diesel Engine By Means of Cylinder Surface Roughness

Aiming at the improvement in piston lubrication and the reduction of piston friction loss under this study, piston friction forces of cylinders with different surface roughness and treatment methods have been measured by means of a floating liner method, and the piston surface conditions have been also observed. As a result, it is found that the piston lubrication can be markedly improved by reducing the cylinder surface roughness. It is also verified that the deterioration in lubrication can be reduced even if some low viscosity oil is used, and the effect on the friction loss reduction becomes greater by reducing the piston surface roughness. On the other hand, it is found that many small vertical flaws are generated on the cylinder surface by reducing the surface roughness. In order to cope with this problem, etching and DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) coating have been tested as the surface treatments. As a result, it is confirmed that DLC coating is effective for the above.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Combustion Study in Direct Infection Hot Surface Ignition Engine

The hydrogen combustion characteristics have been studied in a late-injection (near TDC) hot surface ignition engine. As a supplemental experiment, the mode of combustion was observed in a constant volume combustion chamber by the schlieren method. Consequently the combustion process, that was the flame propagation initiated by a hot surface through heterogeneous hydrogen jets, was not the same as that of a diesel engine. The experimental results in test engine showed the optimum number of injection holes and the effect of intake air swirl for better mixture formation. It was observed that the combustion was frequently accompanied by non-negligible combustion pressure vibrations at all engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer into Ceramic Combustion Wall of Internal Combustion Engines

A thin film thermocouple with a high accuracy was developed by means of computer analysis, which allowed measurements of instantaneous temperatures and heat fluxes on combustion chamber walls. Conventional Al-alloy and ceramic plates were compared in terms of the heat loss at the upper surface of each piston during combustion, using a gasoline engine and a diesel engine in the series of experiments. It was found by the comparison that the ceramic plates subjected to higher temperatures had greater heat losses in both the gasoline and diesel engines contrary to the anticipation.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Characteristics of Hydrogen and Hydrogen-rich Natural Gas Reformate Supported by DME Supplement

Hydrogen is expected to be a clean and energy-efficient fuel for the next generation of power sources because it is CO2-free and has excellent combustion characteristics. In this study, an attempt was made to apply Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion to hydrogen with the aim of achieving low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions and high fuel economy with the assistance of the di-methyl-ether (DME) fuel supplement. As a result, HCCI combustion of hydrogen mixed with 25 vol% DME achieved approximately a 30% improvement in fuel economy compared with HCCI of pure DME and spark-ignited lean-burn combustion of pure hydrogen under almost zero NOx emissions and low hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. This is attributed to control of the combustion process to attain the optimum onset of combustion and to a reduction of cooling losses.
Technical Paper

Friction and Lubrication Characteristics of Piston Pin Boss Bearings of an Automotive Engine

The aim of this research was to analyze the lubrication conditions of piston pin boss bearings used in the press-fit piston pins of automobile gasoline engines. An original pin boss friction measuring device was developed and used to successfully obtain measurements. It was revealed that the friction force peaks twice every cycle at high engine loads, and non-fluid lubrication characteristics are displayed. The friction forces for various differing piston pins and pin boss bearings were analyzed, and it was shown that reducing piston pin length or thickness to reduce piston weight, or reducing the pin boss bearing clearance to reduce noise worsen the friction characteristics and increase the possibility of abnormal bearing friction as well as seizure.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Analysis in a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with a Measurement of Methanol Concentration

Methanol has many advantages as a fuel for fuel cells compared with hydrogen. The direct methanol type system consists of simple and compact equipment, and suited for automobile use. This research analyzed characteristics of power output and thermal efficiency in a direct methanol fuel cell. The measuring system for low concentration methanol in a water solution using the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) was developed. Influences of electrolyte membrane thickness, cell temperature, and methanol solution concentration on power output and thermal efficiency were analyze.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricating Oil Supply on Reductions of Piston Slap Vibration and Piston Friction

This study has been conducted aiming at reductions of piston slap noise and piston friction loss, and effects of lubricating oil supply between the piston skirt and cylinder on diesel engine have been verified through a series of experiments. Namely, lubricating oil was supplied forcibly into the piston skirt from outside of engine, and its effects on the cylinder block vibration, piston friction force, slap motion and oil consumption have been measured. As a result, it has been verified that the supply of a small amount of oil (6mL/min) to the piston skirt reduces about 50 % of the block vibration caused by the piston slap motion in idling operation, and about 20 % of the piston friction loss in full load operation. Furthermore it has verified without giving any significant adverse effect on oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Motion on Piston Skirt Friction of a Gasoline Engine

This study has been aimed at the reduction of the intense piston skirt friction force that appears in the expansion stroke out of all piston friction forces generated in gasoline engines. The friction characteristics at the piston skirt have been analyzed according to the measured results at piston friction forces and the shapes of wears at the piston skirt in actual engine operations. It is found from the above that the majority of the side force working on each piston is supported by the oil film on the skirt, while only some of the side force is supported by the portion in metallic contact with the cylinder. It is also found through experiments that the metallic contact portion has a great effect on the friction force at the skirt. The effect of piston posture in expansion stroke on the friction force has been also analyzed based on the measured results of piston slap motions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Jet on Mixture Formation in a High-Pressure Injection Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Spark Ignition

In order to establish hydrogen engines for practical use, it is important to overcome difficulties caused by unique characteristics of hydrogen fuel. A hydrogen engine with direct injection right before top dead center(TDC) and spark ignition has advantages such as prevention of abnormal combustion and realization of high power output near the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, in comparison with an engine with external mixture. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that ignition and combustion for this type of hydrogen engines should be improved and that further studies on mixture formation of air and injected hydrogen are necessary for the improvement. For the direct injection hydrogen engine, mixture is formed both by air flow inside the combustion chamber and by injected hydrogen jet.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Simulator: Design and Application to Plasma Discharge Testing

A diesel fuel and air diffusion flame burner system has been designed for laboratory simulation of diesel exhaust gas. The system consists of mass flow controllers and a fuel pump, and employs several unique design and construction features. It produces particulate emissions with size, number distribution, and morphology similar to diesel exhaust. At the same time, it generates NOx emissions and HC similar to diesel. The system has been applied to test plasma discharges. Different design discharge devices have been tested, with results indicating the importance of testing devices with soot and moisture. Both packed bed reactor and flat plate dielectric barrier discharge systems remove some soot from the gas, but the designs tested are susceptible to soot fouling and related electrical failures. The burner is simple and stable, and is suitable for development and aging of plasma and catalysts systems in the laboratory environment.