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Technical Paper

Wide Temperature Core Loss Characteristics of Transverse Magnetically Annealed Amorphous Tapes for High Frequency Aerospace Magnetics

1999-08-02
1999-01-2542
100 kHz core loss properties of sample transverse magnetically annealed, cobalt-based amorphous and iron-based nanocrystalline tape wound magnetic cores are presented over the temperature range of -150 C to 150 C, at selected values of Bpeak. For B-fields not close to saturation, the core loss is not sensitive to temperature in this range and is as low as seen in the best MnZn power ferrites at their optimum temperatures. Frequency resolved characteristics are given over the range of 50 kHz to 1 MHz, but at Bpeak = 0.1 T and 50 C only. For example, the 100 kHz specific core loss ranged from 50 mW/cm3 to 70 mW/cm3 for the 3 materials, when measured at 0.1 T and 50 C. This very low high frequency core loss, together with near zero saturation magnetostriction and insensitivity to rough handling, makes these amorphous ribbons strong candidates for power magnetics applications in wide temperature aerospace environments
Technical Paper

Weathering of Thermal Control Coatings

2007-07-09
2007-01-3020
Spacecraft radiators reject heat to their surroundings. Radiators can be deployable or mounted on the body of the spacecraft. NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle is to use body mounted radiators. Coatings play an important role in heat rejection. The coatings provide the radiator surface with the desired optical properties of low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance. These specialized surfaces are applied to the radiator panel in a number of ways, including conventional spraying, plasma spraying, or as an appliqué. Not specifically designed for a weathering environment, little is known about the durability of conventional paints, coatings, and appliqués upon exposure to weathering and subsequent exposure to solar wind and ultraviolet radiation exposure. In addition to maintaining their desired optical properties, the coatings must also continue to adhere to the underlying radiator panel.
Technical Paper

Water Injection: Disruptive Technology1 to Reduce Airplane Emissions and Maintenance Costs

2004-11-02
2004-01-3108
Water injection is an old aviation technology that was previously used to generate increased engine power during takeoff. If water injection were now to be used without increasing thrust, it could result in large reductions in takeoff NOx emissions and would most likely enable longer engine life and reduced operator costs. Due to the cooling action of evaporating water, a large temperature reduction will be experienced at the point where the water is injected into the engine. This could improve combustion emissions, such as temperature-sensitive NOx, and help reduce temperatures throughout the turbine section of the engine. The two current preferred methods of water injection are: (1) direct injection into the combustor, and (2) misting of the conditioned water before the engine's compressor. Combustor injection could achieve up to 90% NOx reduction and offer few implementation challenges as it has been used in aero-derivative industrial engines for over 30 years.
Technical Paper

Update On SLD Engineering Tools Development

2003-06-16
2003-01-2127
The airworthiness authorities (FAA, JAA, Transport Canada) will be releasing a draft rule in the 2006 timeframe concerning the operation of aircraft in a Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) environment aloft. The draft rule will require aircraft manufacturers to demonstrate that their aircraft can operate safely in an SLD environment for a period of time to facilitate a safe exit from the condition. It is anticipated that aircraft manufacturers will require a capability to demonstrate compliance with this rule via experimental means (icing tunnels or tankers) and by analytical means (ice prediction codes). Since existing icing research facilities and analytical codes were not developed to account for SLD conditions, current engineering tools are not adequate to support compliance activities in SLD conditions. Therefore, existing capabilities need to be augmented to include SLD conditions.
Technical Paper

Total Temperature Measurements in Icing Cloud Flows Using a Rearward Facing Probe

2019-06-10
2019-01-1923
This paper reports on temperature and humidity measurements from a series of ice-crystal icing tunnel experiments conducted in June 2018 at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were fundamental in nature and were aimed at investigating the icing processes on a two-dimensional NACA0012 airfoil subjected to artificially generated icing clouds. Prior to the tests on the airfoil, a suite of instruments, including total temperature and humidity probes, were used to characterize the thermodynamic flow and icing cloud conditions of the facility. Two different total temperature probes were used in these tests which included a custom designed rearward facing probe and a commercial self-heating total temperature probe. The rearward facing probe, the main total temperature probe, is being designed to reduce and mitigate the contaminating effects of icing and ingestion of ice crystals and water droplets at the probe’s inlet.
Technical Paper

Thin Film Measurement Assessment of the VPCAR Water Recovery System in Partial and Microgravity

2007-07-09
2007-01-3039
The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system is being developed to recycle water for future NASA Exploration Missions [1,2,3,4,5]. Reduced gravity testing of the VPCAR System has been initiated to identify any potential problems with microgravity operation. Two microgravity testing campaigns have been conducted on NASA's C-9B Reduced Gravity Aircraft. These tests focused on the fluid dynamics of the unit's Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) evaporator. The experiments used a simplified system to study the process of forming a thin film on a rotating disk. The configuration simulates the application of feed in the VPCAR's WFRD evaporator. The first round of aircraft testing, which was completed in early 2006, indicated that a problem with microgravity operation of the WFRD existed. It was shown that in reduced gravity the VPCAR wiper did not produce a uniform thin film [6]. The film was thicker near the axis of rotation where centrifugal forces are small.
Technical Paper

The CEV Smart Buyer Team Effort: A Summary of the Crew Module & Service Module Thermal Design Architecture

2007-07-09
2007-01-3046
The NASA-wide CEV Smart Buyer Team (SBT) was assembled in January 2006 and was tasked with the development of a NASA in-house design for the CEV Crew Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and Launch Abort System (LAS). This effort drew upon over 250 engineers from all of the 10 NASA Centers. In 6 weeks, this in-house design was developed. The Thermal Systems Team was responsible for the definition of the active and passive design architecture. The SBT effort for Thermal Systems can be best characterized as a design architecting activity. Proof-of-concepts were assessed through system-level trade studies and analyses using simplified modeling. This nimble design approach permitted definition of a point design and assessing its design robustness in a timely fashion. This paper will describe the architecting process and present trade studies and proposed thermal designs
Technical Paper

Testing of an R134a Spray Evaporative Heat Sink

2008-06-29
2008-01-2165
The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing a spacecraft open loop spray evaporative heat sink for use in pressure environments near sea-level, where evaporative cooling of water is not effective. The working fluid is R134a, a common refrigerant used in household appliances, considered safe and non-toxic for humans. The concept uses an open loop spray of R134a impinging on a heated flat plate, through which a closed loop of hot coolant flows, having acquired the heat from spacecraft electronics boxes, the cabin heat exchanger, and other heat sources. The latent heat of evaporation cools the outside of the hot plate, and through heat conduction, reduces the temperature of the coolant. The testing at NASA Glenn has used an electrically heated cylindrical copper target to simulate the hot plate. This paper will discuss the R134a feed system, the test matrix, and test results.
Journal Article

Test of SOI 555 Timer with High Temperature Packaging

2008-11-11
2008-01-2882
The thick oxide layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices significantly reduces the junction leakage current at elevated temperatures compared to similar Si devices, resulting in an elevated maximum operating temperature. The maximum operating temperature, specified by manufacturers, of commercial SOI devices/circuits with conventional packaging is usually 225°C. It is important to understand the performance and de-ratings of these SOI circuits at temperatures above 225°C without the temperature limit imposed by commercial packaging technology. This work tested a low frequency square-wave oscillator based on an SOI 555 Timer with a special high temperature ceramic packaging technology from room temperature to 375°C. The timer die was attached to a 96% aluminum oxide substrate with high temperature durable gold (Au) thick-film metallization, and interconnected with Au wires.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

2019-06-10
2019-01-2027
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

Sub-Critical Liquid Oxygen (Lox) Storage for Exploration Life Support Systems

2009-07-12
2009-01-2417
Oxygen storage and delivery systems for advanced Lunar Exploration Missions are substantially different than those of the International Space Station (ISS) or Apollo missions. The oxygen must be stored without venting for durations of 180 to 210 days prior to use and then used to supply both the steady, low pressure oxygen for the crew, and the higher-pressure oxygen for the extra-vehicular mobility unit. The baseline design is a high pressure gaseous oxygen storage system. Alternate technologies that may offer substantial advantages in terms of the equivalent system mass over the baseline design are being currently evaluated. This study examines both the supercritical and subcritical liquid oxygen storage options, including one with active cooling using a cryocooler. It is found that an actively cooled sub-critical storage system offered the lowest mass system that could satisfy the requirements.
Technical Paper

Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture

2007-09-17
2007-01-3859
A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)- Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.
Technical Paper

Smoke Particle Sizes in Low-Gravity and Implications for Spacecraft Smoke Detector Design

2009-07-12
2009-01-2468
This paper presents results from a smoke detection experiment entitled Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME) which was conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox on the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 15. Five different materials representative of those found in spacecraft were pyrolyzed at temperatures below the ignition point with conditions controlled to provide repeatable sample surface temperatures and air flow conditions. The sample materials were Teflon®, Kapton®, cellulose, silicone rubber and dibutylphthalate. The transport time from the smoke source to the detector was simulated by holding the smoke in an aging chamber for times ranging from 10 to1800 seconds. Smoke particle samples were collected on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids for post-flight analysis.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

2019-06-10
2019-01-1965
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model Development for Icing Effects Flight Training

2002-04-16
2002-01-1527
A high-fidelity simulation model for icing effects flight training was developed from wind tunnel data for the DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. First, a flight model of the un-iced airplane was developed and then modifications were generated to model the icing conditions. The models were validated against data records from the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research flight test program with only minimal refinements being required. The goals of this program were to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a simulator for training pilots to recognize and recover from icing situations and to establish a process for modeling icing effects to be used for future training devices.
Technical Paper

SLD Research in the UK

2003-06-16
2003-01-2128
This paper reviews work conducted in the UK aimed at developing validated methods to simulate ice accretion formed in super-cooled large droplet (SLD) icing conditions. To date, QinetiQ has completed one theoretical and three experimental programmes of work. Two further studies are currently in progress within UK universities. This paper provides results from the third test conducted by QinetiQ and NASA in the GKN Aerospace Composite Technologies Icing Research Wind Tunnel, Luton UK, to measure the mass loss through droplet splash during an SLD encounter. A description of the test procedures and the results obtained are provided. Future work on SLD methods development in progress in the UK is then briefly outlined.
Technical Paper

Rotating Rig Development for Droplet Deformation/Breakup and Impact Induced by Aerodynamic Surfaces

2011-06-13
2011-38-0087
This work presents the development of a Rotating Rig Facility by the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in cooperation with the NASA Glenn Research Center. The facility is located at the INTA installations near Madrid, Spain. It has been designed to study the deformation, breakup and impact of large droplets induced by aerodynamic bodies. The importance of these physical phenomena is related to the effects of Supercooled Large Droplets in icing clouds on the impinging efficiency of the droplets on the body that may change should these phenomena not be taken into account. The important variables and the similarity parameters that enter in this problem are presented. The facility's components are described and some possible setups are explained. Application examples from past experiments are presented in order to indicate the capabilities of the new facility.
Technical Paper

Review of Role of Icing Feathers in Ice Accretion Formation

2007-09-24
2007-01-3294
This paper presents a review of our current experimental and theoretical understanding of icing feathers and the role that they play in the formation of ice accretions. It covers the following areas: a short review of past research work related to icing feathers; a discussion of the physical characteristics and terminology used in describing icing feathers; the presence of feathers on ice accretions formed in unswept airfoils, especially at SLD conditions; the role that icing feathers play in the formation of ice accretion shapes on swept wings; the formation of icing feathers from roughness elements; theoretical considerations regarding feather formation, feather interaction to form complex icing structures, the role of film dynamics in the formation of roughness elements and the formation of feathers. Hypotheses related to feather formation and feather growth are discussed.
Technical Paper

Results and Analysis from Reduced Gravity Experiments of the Flexible Membrane Commode Apparatus

2009-07-12
2009-01-2344
Two separate experimental rigs used in tests on NASA and Zero-G Corporation aircrafts flying low-gravity trajectories, and in the NASA 2.2 Second Drop Tower have been developed to test the functioning of the Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) concept under reduced gravity conditions. The first rig incorporates the flexible, optically opaque membrane bag and the second rig incorporates a transparent chamber with a funnel assembly for evacuation that approximates the size of the membrane bag. Different waste dispensers have been used including a caulking gun and flexible hose assembly, and an injection syringe. Waste separation mechanisms include a pair of wire cutters, an iris mechanism, as well as discrete slug injection. The experimental work is described in a companion paper. This paper focuses on the obtained results and analysis of the data.
Technical Paper

Radiation in Space and its Control of Equilibrium Temperatures in the Solar System

2004-07-19
2004-01-2518
The problem of determining equilibrium temperatures for re-radiating surfaces in space vacuum was analyzed and the resulting mathematical relationships were incorporated in a code to determine space sink temperatures in the solar system. A brief treatment of planetary atmospheres is also included. Temperature values obtained with the code are in good agreement with available spacecraft telemetry and meteorological measurements for Venus and Earth. The code has been used in the design of space power system radiators for future interplanetary missions.
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