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Technical Paper

Reliability of Biological Systems Based on CBF Data

1996-07-01
961498
The reliability of biological life support systems, critical for long-duration human space missions, has been questioned. We propose that properly engineered biological components are inherently reliable, and support this view with data from nine years of operation of the CELSS Breadboard Facility (CBF) at Kennedy Space Center. Reliability problems in a bioregenerative life support system will generally be caused by support system failures, they will generally not be catastrophic, and the crew will have ample time to respond. Thus, biological system reliability can be good, and the impact of low component reliability would generally be to increase system cost rather than to risk mission failure.
Technical Paper

Rapid Microbial Analysis during Simulated Surface EVA at Meteor Crater: Implications for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

2006-07-17
2006-01-2006
Procedures for rapid microbiological analysis were performed during simulated surface extra-vehicular activity (EVA) at Meteor Crater, Arizona. The fully suited operator swabbed rock (‘unknown’ sample), spacesuit glove (contamination control) and air (negative control). Each swab sample was analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-1, 3-glucan within 10 minutes by the handheld LOCAD PTS instrument, scheduled for flight to ISS on space shuttle STS-116. This simulated a rapid and preliminary ‘life detection’ test (with contamination control) that a human could perform on Mars. Eight techniques were also evaluated for their ability to clean and remove LPS and β-1, 3-glucan from five surface materials of the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). While chemical/mechanical techniques were effective at cleaning smooth surfaces (e.g. RTV silicon), they were less so with porous fabrics (e.g. TMG gauntlet).
Technical Paper

Comparison Studies of Candidate Nutrient Delivery Systems for Plant Cultivation in Space

1997-07-01
972304
A reliable nutrient delivery system is essential for long-term cultivation of plants in space. At the Kennedy Space Center, a series of ground-based tests are being conducted to compare candidate plant nutrient delivery systems for space. To date, our major focus has concentrated on the Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System, the ASTROCULTURE™ System, and a zeoponic plant growth substrate. The merits of each system are based upon the performance of wheat supported over complete growth cycles. To varying degrees, each system supported wheat biomass production and showed distinct patterns for plant nutrient uptake and water use.
Technical Paper

A More Completely Defined CELSS

1994-06-01
941292
A CELSS has been defined based on current or near-term technology. The CELSS was sized to support the metabolic load of four people on the Moon for ten years. A metabolic load of 14 MJ/person/day is assumed, including an average of 2.6 hr of EVA/person/day. Close to 100% closure of water, and oxygen, and 85% closure of the food loop is assumed. With 15% of the calories supplied from Earth, this should provide adequate dietary variety for the crew along with vitamin and mineral requirements. Other supply and waste removal requirements are addressed. The basic shell used is a Space Station Freedom 7.3 m (24 ft) module. This is assumed to be buried in regolith to provide protection from radiation, meteoroids, and thermal extremes. A solar dynamic power system is assumed, with a design life of 10 years delivering power at 368 kWh/kg. Initial estimates of size are that 73 m2 of plant growth area are required, giving a plant growth volume of about 73 m3.
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