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Technical Paper

Thermal Model Correlation for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and began aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. In order to save propellant, MRO used aerobraking to modify the initial orbit at Mars. The spacecraft passed through the atmosphere briefly on each orbit; during each pass the spacecraft was slowed by atmospheric drag, thus lowering the orbit apoapsis. The largest area on the spacecraft, most affected by aeroheating, was the solar arrays. A thermal analysis of the solar arrays was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to simulate their performance throughout the entire roughly 6-month period of aerobraking. A companion paper describes the development of this thermal model. This model has been correlated against many sets of flight data. Several maneuvers were performed during the cruise to Mars, such as thruster calibrations, which involve large abrupt changes in the spacecraft orientation relative to the sun.
Technical Paper

The Third Wave of Aeronautics: On-Demand Mobility

Aviation has experienced one hundred years of dynamic growth and change, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. The first fifty years of aviation was a very chaotic, rapid evolutionary process involving disruptive technologies that required frequent adaptation. The second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of services based on achieving an objective function of decreased costs. In the third wave of aeronautics over the next fifty years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient, and environmentally fare and friendly system.
Technical Paper

The All Electric Airplane - Benefits and Challenges

A brief definition of an “All Electric Airplane” will be presented. Several NASA and DOD studies have examined the application of advanced electric/electronic technologies. The benefits identified in these studies will be summarized. The state-of-the-art in all electric airplane technology will be described. A NASA program has been proposed to develop the necessary technology base for industry application. The elements of this proposed program will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Test Results of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

Prior studies have been performed where basic fabric lay-ups of the current Shuttle spacesuit were tested for radiation shielding capabilities. It was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection from radiation than previously estimated. This is due to the porosity and non-uniformity of the fabrics and LCVG components. These findings were incorporated into the spacesuit model developed at NASA Langley Research Center to estimate exposures for mission planning and evaluation of safety during radiation field disturbance. Overall material transmission properties were also less than optimal. In order to evaluate the radiation protection characteristics of some proposed new spacesuit materials, fifteen test target combinations of current baseline and new proposed spacesuit materials were exposed to a low-energy proton beam at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Each target combination contained all of the necessary spacesuit layers, i.e.
Technical Paper

Standardized Radiation Shield Design Method: 2005 HZETRN

Research committed by the Langley Research Center through 1995 resulting in the HZETRN code provides the current basis for shield design methods according to NASA STD-3000 (2005). With this new prominence, the database, basic numerical procedures, and algorithms are being re-examined with new methods of verification and validation being implemented to capture a well defined algorithm for engineering design processes to be used in this early development phase of the Bush initiative. This process provides the methodology to transform the 1995 HZETRN research code into the 2005 HZETRN engineering code to be available for these early design processes. In this paper, we will review the basic derivations including new corrections to the codes to insure improved numerical stability and provide benchmarks for code verification.
Technical Paper

Spin Resistance Development for Small Airplanes - A Retrospective

With the resurgence of the General Aviation industry, the incentive to develop new airplanes for the low-end market has increased. Increased production of small airplanes provides the designers and manufacturers the opportunity to incorporate advanced technologies that are not readily retrofitable to existing designs. Spin resistance is one such technology whose development was concluded by NASA during the 1980’s when the production of small airplanes had slipped into near extinction. This paper reviews the development of spin resistance technology for small airplanes with emphasis on wing design. The definition of what constitutes spin resistance and the resulting amendment of the Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23 to enable certification of spin resistant airplanes are also covered.
Technical Paper

Some New Results in the Green’s Function Method for Ion Beam Transport

The development of a Green’s function approach to ion transport greatly facilitates the modeling of laboratory radiation environments and allows for the direct testing of transport approximations of material transmission properties. Using this approach radiation investigators at the NASA Langley Research Center have established that simple solutions can be found for HZE ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift and dispersion associated with nuclear events. In a more recent publication it was shown how these effects can be incorporated into the multiple fragmentation perturbation series. Analytical approximations for the first two perturbation terms were presented and the third term was evaluated numerically.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of an Automatic Trim System for Reducing the Control Forces on a Light Twin After an Engine Failure

An automatic trim system for reducing the control forces after an engine failure on a light twin has been investigated on the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The system schedules open-loop trim tab deflections as a function of differential propeller slipstream dynamic pressure and freestream dynamic pressure. The system is described and the airplane-system static and dynamic characteristics are documented. Three NASA research pilots evaluated the effectiveness of the system for takeoff and landing maneuvers. A variety of off-nominal system characteristics were studied. The system was judged to be generally beneficial, providing a 2 to 3 point improvement in pilot rating for the tasks used in the evaluations.
Technical Paper

Review of NASA Antiskid Braking Research

NASA antiskid braking system research programs are reviewed. These programs include experimental studies of four antiskid systems on the Langley Landing Loads Track, flight tests with a DC-9 airplane, and computer simulation studies. Results from these research efforts include identification of factors contributing to degraded antiskid performance under adverse weather conditions, tire tread temperature measurements during antiskid braking on dry runway surfaces, and an assessment of the accuracy of various brake pressure-torque computer models. This information should lead to the development of better antiskid systems in the future.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments of Experimental Techniques and Their Applications at NASA Langley Research Center

The need for highly accurate measurements of velocity, temperature, pressure and density has required the development of new experimental techniques. While the majority of these development efforts at NASA Langley are focused toward applications for aeronautical programs such as the High-Speed Civil Transport, Advanced Subsonic Transport, and the National Aero-Space Plane, a number are applicable to other fields. The intent of this paper is to review recent instrumentation developments and applications at NASA Langley Research Center that may have applications in automotive testing. Five experimental techniques are described along with recent results obtained in NASA facilities.
Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
Technical Paper

Power Transmission by Laser Beam from Lunar-Synchronous Satellites to a Lunar Rover

This study addresses the possibility of beaming laser power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 LaGrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor; the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometry, power needs, mission and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with on-board power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.
Technical Paper

Performance Characterization of a Lithium-Ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed.
Technical Paper

Performance Automotive Applications of Pressure-Sensitive Paint in the Langley Full Scale Tunnel

Recently, there has been a strong emphasis on aerodynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing of automobiles. While significant level resources have been spent on investigating aerodynamics, the methodology has not changed appreciably since the beginning of aerodynamics as a science. Over the past decade, a number of global flow diagnostic techniques have been developed that drastically increase the quality and quantity of data from wind tunnel testing. One of these technologies is the use of pressure sensitive luminescent coatings, known as pressure-sensitive paint, a method which has matured considerably since its inception and is now used extensively in aerospace applications with good results. The goal of this research is to implement this technology in the full scale testing of high performance automotive vehicles. This paper discusses the details of a preliminary test, such as technique, paint formulation, camera and lighting hardware, and data reduction and analysis.
Technical Paper

Overview of Noise Reduction Technology in the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) Program

Noise is a barrier issue for penetration of civil markets by future tiltrotor aircraft. To address this issue, elements of the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) [SH(CT)] program are working in three different areas: noise abatement, noise reduction, and noise prediction. Noise abatement refers to modification of flight procedures to achieve quieter approaches. Noise reduction refers to innovative new rotor designs that would reduce the noise produced by a tiltrotor. Noise prediction activities are developing the tools to guide the design of future quiet tiltrotors. This paper presents an overview of SH(CT) activities in all three areas, including sample results.
Technical Paper

Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.
Technical Paper

New Design and Operating Techniques for Improved Terminal Area Compatibility*

Current aircraft operating problems that must be alleviated for future high-density terminal areas are safety, dependence on weather, congestion, energy conservation, noise, and atmospheric pollution. The MLS under development by FAA provides increased capabilities over the current ILS. It is, however, necessary and urgent to develop the airborne system's capability to take maximum advantage of the MLS capabilities in order to solve the terminal area problems previously mentioned. A major limiting factor in longitudinal spacing for capacity increase is the trailing vortex hazard. Promising methods for causing early dissipation of the vortices are being explored. Also, flight procedures for avoiding the hazard will be explored.
Technical Paper

NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project: Generation N+3 Technology Portfolio

Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy-efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies, and the development of unconventional aircraft systems, offer the potential to achieve these improvements.
Technical Paper

NASA Personal Air Transportation Technologies

The ability to personalize air travel through the use of an on-demand, highly distributed air transportation system will provide the degree of freedom and control that Americans enjoy in other aspects of their life. This new capability, of traveling when, where, and how we want with greatly enhanced mobility, accessibility, and speed requires vehicle and airspace technologies to provide the equivalent of an internet PC ubiquity, to an air transportation system that now exists as a centralized hub and spoke mainframe NASA airspace related research in this new category of aviation has been conducted through the Small Aircraft Transportation (SATS) project, while the vehicle technology efforts have been conducted in the Personal Air Vehicle sector of the Vehicle Systems Program.
Technical Paper

NASA Aerodynamic Research Applicable to Business Aircraft

A review is made of NASA aerodynamic research of interest to the designer of business aircraft. The results of wind-tunnel and flight studies of several current aircraft are summarized. The attainment of STOL performance is discussed and the effectiveness of several lift augmentation concepts is examined. Finally, the potentialities and problems of flight at and beyond the speed of sound are discussed.