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Technical Paper

srv-k Status Aboard the International Space Station During Missions 15 and 16

2008-06-29
2008-01-2191
The paper summarizes the experience gained on the ISS water management system during the missions of ISS-1 through ISS-16 (since November 2 2000, through December 31, 2007). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on a board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine, water from a carbon dioxide reduction system and hygiene water is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Supply of the Crew of a Space Station Through Water Recovery and Water Delivery: SRV-K and SPK-U System Operation on ISS

2005-07-11
2005-01-2806
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-10 (since November 2 2000, through November 30, 2004). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery on the International Space Station: The Perspectives of Space Stations' Water Supply Systems

2007-07-09
2007-01-3174
The paper summarizes the six years' experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-14 (since November 2, 2000 through October 31, 2006). The water supply sources, consumption structure and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery during space missions and the prospects of regenerative water supply of an interplanetary space station are discussed. The aim of this paper is to summarize the water supply experience and to provide recommendations for a perspective water supply integrated system based on water recovery.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Service Module of the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2355
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at an initial phase of manned station functioning are provided. The data on humidity condensate and recovered water composition are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The effective cooperation of international partners on part of water supply for the crew is shown.
Journal Article

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station (Mission 1 Through Mission 17)

2009-07-12
2009-01-2485
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-17 (since November 2, 2000, through October 23, 2008). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection Abord the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2622
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply and urine collection systems of the International Space Station (ISS) as of December 31, 2002. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis Aboard the International Space Station

2002-07-15
2002-01-2358
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water and oxygen supply systems of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at the first 14 months of manned station functioning are provided. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The system of oxygen generation “Electron-VM” and its functioning results are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Total Organic Carbon Analyzer in Testing of Water Recovery Systems for a Space Station

1999-07-12
1999-01-2034
The paper reviews the results obtained with a Sievers-820 total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer during ground tests of the Mir water recovery system (WRS). Calibration analysis results for water solution samples of individual compounds, typical of spacecraft atmospheric humidity condensate, and their mixtures are provided. Comparison of the test results to the calculated data and laboratory analyses performed by other methods are made. Analyzer readings are in good agreement with the chemical analyses of initial condensate and recovered water. The analyzer shows promise as an instrument for ground and future onboard spacecraft testing.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Development of Regenerative Life Support Systems of Space and Planetary Stations

2008-06-29
2008-01-2188
Based on experience obtained in operation of the water and oxygen recovery systems installed onboard the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station ISS, data on the water and oxygen balance for a space station are presented as well as operational parameters and performance data of the systems. Using the data obtained design analysis of an integrated life support system for water and oxygen recovery based on physical/chemical means to be installed on a promising space station is carried out. Mandatory verification tests of new process (technologies) and recovery systems are to be conducted on ISS.
Technical Paper

The Performance of the System for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate (SRV-K) on International Space Station, ISS Missions 1 through 11

2006-07-17
2006-01-2269
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-11 (since November 2 2000, through October 10, 2005). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is shown. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

The Definition of Space Life Support System Preliminary Configuration Based on a Single Criteria Approach

2001-07-09
2001-01-2366
This paper reviews the preliminary definition of integrated life support system configurations based on a single criterion decision-making task (SCDMT). Comparative analysis results are shown for currently used effectiveness models based on SCDMT. Possible areas of application for those models are determined. It is also proven that well-known effectiveness model, which uses an equivalent mass approach to determine system expenditures, can be used only in cases where useful effect from system operation is the same. The article proposes the use of a global thermodynamic effectiveness criterion based on the exergy method to account for ECLSS functional expenditures, i.e. functional costs. Exergy is a concept that fuses energy and material quality information in a measure that is both descriptive and physically significant. This method accounts for nonequivalence of different forms of energy and allows measuring technological flows in the system using same measuring units.
Technical Paper

The Concept of an Ecotechnical System and Its Application to the Synthesis of the Structure of Integrated Life Support System

2002-07-15
2002-01-2390
This paper describes the concept of Ecotechnical System (ETS) based on the analysis of mass, power and data flow exchange within a biocenosis and between a biocenosis and technical systems that support life and activity of any biological entity in isolated environment of space vehicle. A biocenosis is considered to be a gathering of live organisms (generally people, animals, plants and micro-organisms) in an artificial habitat of the isolated environment. An Ecotechnical System is defined and it is shown that the given concept brings together different life support systems based on physical-chemical and biological means of regeneration of crew metabolic products. The existing limitations to the ETS development are reviewed in the paper in respect to limited volumes of space vehicles based on the vehicle characteristics and particular space program tasks. Three step analysis approach proposed for ETS effectiveness evaluation.
Technical Paper

The Comparison of Thermodynamic and Thermoeconomic Analysis in Application to Eco-Technical System Design

2003-07-07
2003-01-2363
The design of any complex system, especially eco-technical is very challenging due to the variety of processes, system composition, relation between different components and presence of the human. Process and technology selections affect the flow rate, composition, and phase of all resulting components. Therefore, evaluating alternative processes and/or technologies used often requires one to compare the relative environmental merits of distinctly different residual streams. Traditional thermodynamic analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics describes the conservation of energy. In this type of analysis all forms of energy are considered to be equivalent. The loss of quality of energy is not taken into account. It shows the energy flow to be continuous and energy balance is always closed. There can never be an energy loss, only energy transfer to the environment in which case it is useless.
Technical Paper

Testing of Russian ECLSS - Sabatier and Potable Water Processor

1994-06-01
941252
Hamilton Standard Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) has obtained and is currently testing a variety of Russian life support hardware. These units have been or are contemplated for use on Mir I and II space stations. This paper presents the current status of performance testing of a Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Processing Unit (CDPU) and components of a Potable Water Processing System (PWP). These systems were fabricated by NIICHIMMASH, the supplier of these units to the Russian space program. It is the intent of this testing program to obtain a data base for technology comparisons to support planned and future international missions. For the CDPU, reactant conversion efficiencies in excess of 99 percent have been noted for the variation in test conditions with 2 to 6 man processing (flows) tested. The CDPU's effluent water has been produced at anticipated rates and is relatively contaminant free.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model of the Human Body Thermoregulation System and Its Applications for Design of Air/Space Autonomous Life Support Systems

2001-06-26
2001-01-2097
The paper is dedicated to adequacy analysis of Simulation Model of Human Body Thermoregulation System (HTSSM), intended for design of air/space Autonomous Life Support System (ALSS) The formal description of the HTSSM consists 51 equations to describe different body compartments, which consider different properties and individualities of human body as well as complexity dynamic characteristics of the studied functional system, and also includes the equation, which describes heat exchange processes in the heart and lung area. Active heat exchange mechanisms of thermoregulation system are described on the basis of fuzzy set theory. This paper discusses the HTMSS and its applications for: The analysis of a human heat state under heat stress conditions for a helmet area ventilation system design. The analysis of the temperature/moisture fields in the extra-vehicular suit for design of thermal control system. The results of computed experiments obtained using the HTMSS are also reviewed.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model of Crew for Operation Research of Integrative Life Support Systems

2000-07-10
2000-01-2368
This paper reviews a Crew Simulation Model (CSM) for Space Vehicle Integrative Life Support System (ILSS) operation study. It is designed to simulate crew metabolic reaction mass and energy flows in accelerated time mode with each crew member specifics consideration. This CSM formally is based on human body general simulation, which includes main functional systems like: the cardiac-vascular, external respiration, thermal regulation and water/mineral balance. Work and rest time schedules are also considered as well as each crew member presence in a particular module. The CSM considers trace contaminants in metabolic products due to nutrition and environment temperature. This simulations' formal review is shown in the paper as well as formal implementation with computed experiment results. Some of the possible applications are also approached.
Technical Paper

SRV-K Status aboard the International Space Station and Water Recovery Future Prospects

2004-07-19
2004-01-2489
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
Technical Paper

Results of Engineering Development of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly for a Space Station Integrated Life Support System

1995-07-01
951557
The paper reviews some problems of providing the thermal conditions in the Sabatier reactor of the CO2 processing system designed to be operated on Russia's service module of ISSA. The possibility of providing and maintaining the autothermal process with heat removal off the canister surface enclosing the reactor. Some results of control system checks in the start-up, steady-state and shutdown modes are presented. The results of Russia's hardware undergone testing onsite at Dornier (Germany) and Hamilton Standard (U.S.) are discussed.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Regenerative Life Support System Functioning

1996-07-01
961501
The paper is devoted to consideration of the possible approach to forecasting functioning physico/chemical Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) in regular and off-normal conditions of operation on the basis of methods of mathematical simulation. Prediction of RLSS functioning under operating conditions represents the special interest for the analysis of off-normal situations, caused by development of a resource or presence that or that or of the other of failure of the equipment, or change of external conditions. In the given situations working mechanisms of transfer of mass and energy change not only characteristic and modes of operations of separate apparatus, but also, in a number of cases. The given peculiarities should be taken into account at formation of the formalized descriptions of the RLSS hardware.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of a Three-Stage Vacuum Rotary Distillation Processor

2000-07-10
2000-01-2386
Simulated spacecraft water recovery wastewater feed streams were purified with a three-stage vacuum rotary distillation processor (TVRD) during a series of tests conducted to evaluate the operation of this technology. The TVRD was developed to efficiently reclaim potable water from urine in microgravity by NIICHIMMASH (Moscow, Russia). A prototype was evaluated at the Honeywell Space Water Reclamation test lab, where a special test setup was assembled to evaluate the performance of the TVRD. This paper discusses the TVRD technology, test description, test results, and performance analysis. Tests were conducted using four streams of wastewater: pretreated human urine, bioprocessor effluent, reverse osmosis brine ersatz, and deionized water. The testing demonstrated that greater than 90 percent water recovery can be reached with production rates of 2.2 to 2.9 kg/hr (4.84 to 6.30 lb/hr).
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