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Technical Paper

Wear and Leakage in Seal Ring Design

A seal ring of PEEK material was developed and shown to withstand high pressure and high shaft velocity. This was made possible by cooling the ring material using leakage through an engineered passage at the cut junction. The cooling effect of leakage rate was modeled thermodynamically, and calculated leakage rates were compared to measured results.
Technical Paper

Simulation Test Method for Deterioration of Engine Crankshaft Oil Seals

This paper introduces a new simulation test method by using IR analysis which is capable of evaluating the rate of deterioration of VMQ (Silicone) rubber material applied in engine crankshaft seal applications. IR analysis is used to measure the rate of change of the Si-C/Si-0 ratio which indicates the level of deterioration of VMQ material from the hydrolysis of the siloxane bond. Applying the new analysis method, laboratory test conditions could be improved to more closely simulate field conditions.
Technical Paper

Sealing Reliability System on Oil Seals

Through the market experience and information analysis, the importance of Sealing Reliability Activity, especially at the beginning step of determining temporary design specification of oil seal and at the step of evaluation of prototype seals produced according to the temporary design specifications, is discussed.
Technical Paper

Sealing Performance of Lip Type Seals for Rotary Shaft and Reciprocating Shaft under Low Temperature Condition

For either case for rotary shaft or reciprocating shaft motion, rubber lip type seal leakage problems are often encountered under low temperature conditions. As for causes of leakage under low temperature conditions, there are several factors such as following ability of the sealing lip for runout of a shaft or rod, roughening of the sealing surface of the rubber material at the stage of initial motion and so on. Sealing performance is essentially dependent upon the low temperature property of the rubber materials. In this paper, the leakage phenomena is explained through visco-elastic characteristics of the rubber materials.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Sealing Mechanism of Oil Seals Used for Shock Absorbers

Sealing performance of oil seals for reciprocating motion has been previously investigated applying the inverse theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. According to this theory, sealing performance of the oil seal is dominated by factors such as the configuration of the lip (lip angle), viscosity of the fluid to be sealed, the sliding speed and the physical property of the lip material. In this presentation, the authors apply the above mentioned theory to a shock absorber seal under the condition where the pumping stroke and motoring stroke speeds of the rod are different. Consequently, the configuration of the seal lip is improved.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Leakage Phenomena and Improvement of Sealing Performance of Seal Rings Used for Rotary Shafts of Automatic Transmissions

In automotive automatic transmissions, seal rings made of cast iron or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have conventionally been installed between the rotary shaft and housing to prevent oil leakage. Recent trends have indicated that there is an increase in the number of cars with automatic transmissions (1)*, and leakage past the seal rings has become more critical from a functional view point. In this presentation, the leakage phenomena will be discussed, and seal rings with an improved shape and material will be introduced. The result of this design is a lower rate of leakage.
Technical Paper

Evaluation on High-Perssure Hydrogen Decompression Failure of Rubber O-ring Using Design of Experiments

To create a society based on hydrogen energy in the near future, it is necessary to clarify the influence of hydrogen on the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the materials used for hydrogen energy systems. The rubber O-rings used in the high-pressure sometimes suffer from the decrease in durability due to decompression failure, which is influenced by several factors. From this viewpoint, sensitive factors for the durability of rubber O-rings were evaluated by using a L18 orthogonal array. A high-pressure durability tester, which enables the rubber O-rings to expose repeatedly high-pressure hydrogen gas at arbitrary test conditions, was employed.
Technical Paper

Empirical Formularization of Sealing Performance of Rubber Valves Used in Automobiles

Many control valves utilizing the vacuum pressur of engines are used to control the engine, fuel supply, and driving speed. The authors established an empirical formula regarding sealing performance of control valves made of rubber. This formula clarifies the relationship amoung the rubber valve design factors, the counter surface conditions, and the vacuum conditions, with the sealing performance. By applying this formula, it became possible to predict the sealing performance of control valves at a design stage to satisfy the customer's specification.
Technical Paper

Durability Upgrading and Frictional Torque Lowering of the Seal Ring Used for Automatic Transmissions

In the seal ring used for the rotating portion of the automatic transmission, we have developed a seal ring in which the wear of the ring is reduced to 1/10 under PV-value of 12MPa · m/s and equivalent at PV-value of 30MPa·m/s and also the frictional torque of the rotating portion is reduced to 1/2 when compared with the conventional PTFE seal ring. This has been achieved by means of improvement of the oil pocket's shape, size, and the distance between oil pockets equally spaced on the side surface of the seal ring.
Technical Paper

Development of Seal for Power Steering

NBR (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber) has been used for the oil seal equipped on a power steering. However, lack of heat resistance was occasionally observed for NBR, with the recent trend of customer's demand for increasing the life of oil seals in high temperature environmental condition. We developed an oil seal with H-NBR material, which could exhibit the superior performance in the heat resistance; however, it had a weak point in low temperature environment. We have developed HNBR1, the new H-NBR, which has been improved in the performance for low temperature [1]. HNBR1 has been applied for power steering seals as the rubber material, which has superior heat resistance, cold resistance and oil resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of Rubber Pre-coated Metal Gasket Materials

The recent tendency for higher output and high-rotation-speed auto-engines brings an increasing possibility of firing pressure and heat distortion. On the other hand, demands for reducing the consumption of fuel change the material of auto-engine from cast iron to aluminum die-cast. Therefore, the number of cases of engine structure deformation and bore distortion are increasing. As this reason, the new robust type of cylinder head gasket is required for this aluminum block gasoline engine. However, conventional gaskets such as metal reinforced flexible graphite and metal clad non-asbestos millboard have difficulty in maintaining the sealing performance and in reducing the bore distortion. The rubber pre-coated metal gasket can obtain sufficient clamp load on the head gasket and maintain good sealing performance. The rubber-coated metal gaskets include the FKM coated metal gasket, which is called an after-coat type.
Technical Paper

Development of New High and Low Temperature Oil Resistant Sealing Materials

Recently, there has been a strong demand for oil seals which exhibit increased high and low temperature resistance while maintaining good oil resistance. Polyacrylate, a commonly applied material, has good oil resistance but is limited in temperature operating range. Silicone has been applied in applications requiring both high and low temperature resistance but has poor oil resistance. Fluoroelastomer exhibits good oil resistance and high temperature resistance but has poor cold temperature performance. In this presentation, newly developed materials which overcome the fluoroelastomer cold temperature and silicone oil resistance weaknesses yet providing high temperature performance greater than polyacrylate are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Bonded Piston Seals

Transmission manufactures have been required of performance improvement and miniaturization for the AT (automatic transmission) or CVT (continuously variable transmission) unit from car manufactures. Current unit is composed of Aluminum piston, O-ring (or D-ring) and drift ball. We changed design from O-ring to lip type seal and aluminum piston to high strength steel plate piston in order to miniaturize. On the other hand, we changed drift ball to canceler in order to make faster response. At this time, we selected new lip design and developed high tensile strength ACM to keep as same oil pressure resistance and durability as current O-ring. In addition, we could have lower friction with new design of lip shape.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Diaphragm Used for an Accumulator Regarding its Behavior in Low Temperature Conditions

In a diaphragm used for an accumulator, the relationship between design factors and durability in low temperature is discussed from the occurrence of buckling phenomenon through the observation results. The durability of the diaphragm which has a sandwich structure of rubber and resin films, is greatly influenced by the buckling phenomenon which occurs during deformation of the diaphragm when used for an accumulator in low temperature condition.
Journal Article

A Study on a Visualization of Fatigue Behavior near the Glass Transition Region

This study aimed to visualize crack initiation and propagation of rubber at low temperatures. Typical fatigue behavior such as cracking at only the compressed part of rubber products like dustcovers during oscillation tests at ultra-low temperatures have been reported [1]. Rubber products are usually used at temperatures where good rubber elasticity can be obtained. However, in some cases, they are used near glass transition temperatures at which rubber elasticity is poor. Fatigue failures of rubbers generally occur due to existing defects in the rubber material, and rubber tends to fracture easily near glass transition temperatures due to cracking on the surface of the compressed side of the rubber. The observation of the crack initiation process of rubber is difficult at low temperatures because the fracture patterns on rubber disappear when elasticity is recovered at room temperature.
Technical Paper

A Study on Corrosion Occurring at the Sealing Gap between Aluminum Alloy and Rubber Gasket

ADC12 is one of the common aluminum alloys for automobiles because it has suitable for casting and machining. However, the corrosion resistance of ADC12 is insufficient in comparison with other aluminum alloys. The corrosion depends on chemical composition of aluminum and circumstance around aluminum. It was considered that a crevice such as a seal gap accelerates corrosion rate. Therefore, the corrosion at a sealing gap between ADC12 and rubber gasket was investigated. Salt water corrosion tests were carried out with an o-ring compressed between ADC12 plate and plastic plate. Corrosion depth and corrosion area at sealing surface were measured with a microscope. The corrosion depth at the sealing surface was deeper than that outside it. Since smooth surface of aluminum prevented the sealing surface from corrosion, it was considered that the narrow sealing gap enabled to decrease in the corrosion rate.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Sealing Mechanism of Radial Lip Seal with Helical Ribs – Measurement of the Lubricant Fluid Behavior Under Sealing Contact

In order to clarify the sealing mechanism of radial lip seals, a new test apparatus with a hollow glass shaft was developed, and the fluid behavior under sealing condition was observed by using the Laser Induced Fluorescent (LIF) method. In this paper, the description of the test apparatus and first measurement results are shown. A laser dye dissolved in synthetic oil below the seal lip was excited at a wavelength of 427nm by a SHG solid state blue light laser. The fluorescence was detected by a CCD camera through an optical filter. The fluid paths of the oil beneath the seal lip appeared ahead of each rib as soon as a shaft started to rotate. Furthermore, the intensity of the fluorescence, which is related to the fluid film thickness, increased with shaft speed increasing. First measurement results obtained with the LIF method were in good agreement with other measurement results.
Technical Paper

A Study of Wearing Phenomena of D-Ring Used for Automatic Transmission

Wear of a seal is greatly dependent on the environmental conditions such as the temperature, the speed, the lubrication condition and the design factors such as the total contact load and the contact width of the seal lip. In this presentation, the authors discuss the phenomenon of abnormal wear of the reciprocating seal for an automatic transmission by investigating from a lubrication theory viewpoint. An improved seal usable in severe conditions was developed as a result of this study and is also explained.
Technical Paper

A Study of Durability of Sealing Bellows Boots for Constant-Velocity Joints

Upgrading of the performance and the durability of bellow boots used to seal constant-velocity joints are essential to seet the demand for higher performance and longer life automobiles. In this discussion about bellows boots for sealing constant-velocity joints, examples and analysis results of bench tests for studying wear and fatigue durability are presented.